Table 2

Relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs for prostate cancer and total fish consumption assessed in 1986, 1990, and 1994 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–1998)

Cancer statusTotal fish consumptiona
<2/mo2/mo to 1/week2–3/week>3/week
All prostate cancer
 Case/person-time320/73,601487/99,1621,181/232,606494/110,076
 Age-adjusted RR1.001.06 (0.92–1.22)1.06 (0.94–1.20)0.91 (0.79–1.05)
 Multivariate RRb1.001.05 (0.91–1.21)1.06 (0.93–1.20)0.93 (0.80–1.08)
Advanced prostate cancer
 Case/person-time83/74,501119/100,692303/236,343112/111,671
 Age-adjusted RR1.001.06 (0.80–1.40)1.12 (0.88–1.43)0.83 (0.60–1.06)
 Multivariate RRb1.001.05 (0.79–1.39)1.14 (0.88–1.46)0.83 (0.61–1.13)
Metastatic prostate cancer
 Case/person-time50/74,64047/101,081130/237,18951/111,993
 Age-adjusted RR1.000.72 (0.48–1.07)0.84 (0.60–1.16)0.59 (0.40–0.88)
 Multivariate RRb1.000.71 (0.48–1.06)0.82 (0.58–1.16)0.56 (0.37–0.86)
  • a Total fish consumption comprises canned tuna, dark meat fish (mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish) and other, unspecified fish dishes.

  • b Adjusted for age, calories, and fatty acids [saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, linoleic acid (18:2), α-linolenic acid (18:3), and trans-fatty acids], lycopene, retinol, vitamin D, and physical activity.