Table 2

Association between autoimmune diseasea and childhood acute leukemia

ALL (n = 240)ANLL (n = 39)
CabCoORc95% CICaCoOR95% CI
Any autoimmune diseases
  First or second-degree relatives4432 1.7 (1.0–2.8)832 2.2 (0.9–5.5)
  First-degree relatives1814 1.5 (0.7–3.2)214 1.0 (0.2–4.8)
  Second-degree relatives3023 1.6 (0.9–2.9)723 3.1 (1.1–8.6)
  First or second-degree relatives
   0196250 1.0 Reference32250 1.0 Reference
   13327 1.5 (0.8–2.6)727 2.2 (0.8–5.8)
   2+115 2.9 (0.9–8.9)15 2.0 (0.2–22.1)
P trend = 0.03 P trend = 0.15
Thyroid diseases
 All thyroid diseases
  First or second-degree relatives2718 2.0 (1.0–3.9)418 1.8 (0.5–6.4)
  First-degree relatives125 3.2 (1.0–9.8)15 1.6 (0.2–16.6)
  Second-degree relatives1913 1.8 (0.8–4.0)413 2.8 (0.7–10.9)
 Thyroid diseases potentially autoimmune
  First or second-degree relatives125 3.5 (1.1–10.7)35 5.6 (1.0–31.1)
  First-degree relatives72 5.0 (1.0–26.0)02
  Second-degree relatives63 2.9 (0.6–12.6)33 17.2 (2.3–132)
 Other thyroid diseases
  First or second-degree relatives1713 1.6 (0.7–3.5)213 1.3 (0.2–7.0)
  First-degree relatives53 1.9 (0.4–9.2)13 5.4 (0.5–59.6)
  Second-degree relatives1410 1.6 (0.7–3.9)210 1.5 (0.3–8.5)
Diabetes mellitus
  First or second-degree relatives1013 0.9 (0.4–2.3)113 0.8 (0.1–6.9)
  First-degree relatives25 0.4 (0.1–2.5)15 1.5 (0.2–14.5)
  Second-degree relatives910 1.1 (0.4–3.0)010
Psoriasis
  First or second-degree relatives169 1.7 (0.7–4.1)29 1.5 (0.3–8.4)
  First-degree relatives54 1.2 (0.3–5.1)14 3.5 (0.3–38.1)
  Second-degree relatives116 1.7 (0.6–4.8)16 1.5 (0.3–8.5)
Rheumatoid arthritis
  First or second-degree relatives11 0.9 (0.1–16.7)11 11.4 (0.6–217)
  First-degree relatives0000
  Second-degree relatives11 0.9 (0.1–16.8)11 11.3 (0.6–215)
Multiple sclerosis
  First or second-degree relatives23 1.0 (0.2–5.9)13 2.1 (0.2–23.9)
  First-degree relatives0101
  Second-degree relatives22 1.6 (0.2–10.8)12 4.2 (0.3–58.1)
Crohn’s disease
  First or second-degree relatives3010
  First-degree relatives0000
  Second-degree relatives3010
  • a Autoimmune diseases included Graves disease and/or hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto thyroiditis and/or hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease, Crohn’s disease, coeliac disease, Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome, and psoriasis.

  • b Ca, cases; Co, controls.

  • c The ORs were derived from an unconditional logistic model, adjusted for age, gender, hospital, maternal educational level, age of relatives, and number of relatives.