Table 1

Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of prostate cancer by intake of cruciferous vegetables in 47,365 men of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986–2000

Cruciferous Vegetables (1986 intake)aP (trend)
≤1/wk1.1–2/wk2.1–3/wk3.1–5/wk>5/wk
Total prostate cancer (n)496686504678605
 Age-adjusted RR1.01.010.950.940.930.12
 MV-adjusted RRb1.00.990.930.940.930.30
 95% CI0.88–1.120.82–1.060.83–1.060.82–1.05
 MV-adjusted RRb1.00.990.930.930.910.13
 +Fruits and Veg 95% CI0.88–1.120.82–1.060.82–1.050.79–1.04
Organ-confined prostate cancer (n)274414289382322
 Age-adjusted RR1.01.100.980.960.900.03
 MV-adjusted RRb1.01.070.950.930.880.06
 95% CI0.91–1.250.80–1.130.79–1.090.74–1.05
 MV-adjusted RRb1.00.990.940.940.920.13
 +Fruits and Veg 95% CI0.88–1.120.82–1.070.83–1.060.80–1.05
Extraprostatic prostate cancer (n)74898590111
 Age-adjusted RR1.00.881.070.841.140.41
 MV-adjusted RRb1.00.861.040.841.060.38
 95% CI0.63–1.180.76–1.440.61–1.160.77–1.45
 MV-adjusted RRb1.00.851.030.821.000.76
 +Fruits and Veg 95% CI0.62–1.170.74–1.420.59–1.130.71–1.40
  • a Combined intake of broccoli, cabbage or coleslaw, sauerkraut, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and kale, mustard, or chard greens. The standard servings size for each was ½ cup.

  • b Multivariate (MV) model included: body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI in 1986, height, cigarette pack-years in the previous 10 years, family history of prostate cancer, history of diabetes mellitus, vigorous physical activity, and intakes of total calories, red meat, processed meat, fish, α-linolenic acid, calcium, and tomato sauce. Age and time period were strata variables in the Cox proportional hazards model.