Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analyses

First author, year (Ref.)CountrySelection/characteristics of cases and controls [age range (mean)]Racial descentEligible subjectsa
Prostate cancerControlsProstate cancerControls
Taylor, 1996 (13)United StatesProstatectomy-documented cancerBPHb or impotence, without history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancerEuropean96162
African128
Ingles, 1997 (23)United StatesIdentified by the SEER cancer registry. Family history in 16% [51–68 (57.8) years]Enrolled in a study of bladder cancer (58.2 years)European68171
Ingles, 1998 (24)United StatesLinkage to the SEER cancer registry and the California State Cancer Registry (45–75 years)Randomly selected from the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort [45–75 (63.9) years]African151174
Kibel, 1998 (19)United StatesMen who died from metastatic prostate cancer. Family history in 48.8% (64 years)Urology patients who participated in a screening program for prostate cancer. Normal DRE, no elevated serum PSA, and/or negative biopsy (62 years)European3735
African46
Ma, 1998 (11)United StatesReview of medical records and pathology reports (40–84 years)Physicians participating in Physicians’ Health Study. Cohort with negative clinical history of cancer who returned blood samples (40–84 years)European372591
Watanabe, 1999 (20)JapanSerological, physical, and biopsy examinations (73 years)Most with BPH. Serological (PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase), physical, and/or histological examinations (71.1 years)Asian100202
Correa-Cerro, 1999 (21)GermanyHistologically documented cancer. No family history of prostate cancer [46–90 (68.2) years]Normal DRE, no elevated serum PSA for 7 years. Ambiguous results were checked by ultrasound and biopsy [64–86 (71.2) years]European132105
Furuya, 1999 (19)JapanNot clarified [57–84 (68.5) years]Normal DRE, no elevated serum PSA, and/or negative biopsy [47–79 (67.7) years]Asian6660
Habuchi, 2000 (12)JapanHistologically documented cancer by transrectal needle biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (72.1 years)BPH on DRE without elevated serum PSA or negative transrectal biopsy (n = 209; 70.4 years); nonurological admissions without BPH on DRE and no elevated serum PSA (n = 128; 73.5 years)Asian222337
Blazer, 2000 (22)United StatesHistologically documented cancer. No history of prostate surgeryRandomly selected from the Piedmont Triad community. No history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer, symptomatic BPH, prostatitis, and prostate surgeryEuropean70169
African714
Chokkalingam, 2001 (25)United StatesHistologically documented cancer [50–94 (73) years]Randomly selected from the regional population registry. Normal DRE and no elevated serum PSA levels (66%; 71.9 years)Asian268495
Luscombe, 2001 (32)United KingdomHistologically documented cancer (n = 190); clinically malignant prostate on DRE, positive bone scan and serum PSA > 30 ng/ml (n = 20; 70.6 years)BPH on DRE with serum PSA in the age-related reference range. Histological confirmation of BPH (n = 123; 67 years)European210155
Hamasaki, 2001 (21)JapanHistologically documented cancer (70.3 years)No cancer and BPH on DRE and no elevated serum PSA (67.7 years)Asian115133
Gsur, 2002 (17)AustriaHistologically documented cancer by TRUS-guided biopsy after a suspicious finding on DRE, elevated serum PSA, or both [59–72 (65.9) years]Patients with BPH symptoms. Prostate cancer was excluded by negative DRE and lack of elevated serum PSA, by TRUS-guided biopsy, or by transurethral resection of the prostate [60–73 (66.5) years]European190190
Medeiros, 2002 (18)PortugalHistologically documented cancer (45–86 years)No elevated serum PSA (41–84 years)European163211
Suzuki, 2003 (10)JapanHistologically documented cancer. History of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative [40–88 (70.6) years]Negative DRE, no elevated serum PSA, without history of cancer. Family history of prostate cancer [n = 2; 51–88 (71.2) years]Asian81105
Tayeb, 2003 (9)United KingdomReview of pathology reportsBPH patientsEuropean21379
  • a All eligible subjects were genotyped with the exception of 2 controls (TaqI) in Ma et al. (11) ; 26 cancer patients and 10 controls (TaqI), 15 cancer patients and 2 controls [poly(A)], 14 cancer patients and 16 controls (FokI) in Correa-Cerro et al. (21) ; 1 control in Blazer et al. (22) ; 1 cancer patient and 1 control in Luscombe et al. (15) ; 1 cancer patient and 5 controls in Medeiros et al. (18) ; 11 cancer patients and 2 controls in Ingles et al. (23) ; 3 cancer patients and 1 control [poly(A)] in Kibel et al. (19) ; and 107 cancer patients and 198 controls (BsmI) and 81 cancer patients and 193 controls (FokI) in Chokkalingam et al. (25) .

  • b BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; SEER, Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results; DRE, digital rectal examination; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; TRUS, transrectal ultrasound.