Table 1

Mechanisms of resveratrol in cells in vitro related to cancer chemoprevention

MechanismExperimental system“Efficacious” concentrations (μm)aReference
Inhibition of growthMultiple cell lines∼5–105 (review)
Induction of apoptosisLeukemia cells32–100 34 , 35
Induction of p-53-independent apoptosisColon tumor cells100 36
Estrogen agonismMammary cells10–25 9
AntiestrogenicityMammary cells0.1–1 9
Inhibition of oxygen radical formation nitric oxide productionMacrophages∼30 37
Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes: CYP1A1 CYP1B1, CYP3A4Liver cells, microsomes, recombinant enzyme1–20 8 , 38 , 39
Activation of p53Mouse epidermal cells20 40
Activation of c-jun kinaseMouse epidermal cells10–40 41
Decrease in COX-2 expressionMammary epithelial cells∼5 42
Increase in p21/Cip1, cyclins D1, D2, E; decrease in cdks 2, 4, 6Epidermoid carcinoma cells∼10 43
Increase in cyclins A, B1, and cdks 1 and 2Colon tumor cells30 44
Inhibition of protein kinase C activityGastric cells50 45
Inhibition of protein kinase D activityFibroblasts>100 46
Inhibition of NF κBb activationMonocytes, macrophages30 47
Inhibition of NF κB and AP-1 activationMyeloid, lymphoid, epithelial cells5 48
  • a Lowest concentrations at which reproducible changes have been observed, or IC50 or EC50, if provided.

  • b NF κB, nuclear factor κB.