Table 4

Association between moderate or worse cytological atypia in sputum and lung cancer incidence among the 2006 members of the University of Colorado Lung Cancer Specialized Program of Research Excellence cohort, 1993–2001

Crude modelAdjusted for age, sex, recruitment yearAdjusted for age, sex, recruitment year, pack-years, and smoking status
Hazard ratio (95% CI)aHazard ratio (95% CI)aHazard ratio (95% CI)a
Initial baseline sputum
 Unreadable0.76 (0.28, 2.06)0.79 (0.29, 2.14)0.81 (0.30, 2.20)
 Normal1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild atypia1.20 (0.61, 2.39)1.20 (0.60, 2.40)1.16 (0.58, 2.32)
 Moderate atypia1.64 (0.78, 3.48)1.67 (0.79, 3.54)1.66 (0.79, 3.53)
 Worse than moderate atypia18.4 (8.30, 40.6)19.1 (8.53, 42.9)17.7 (7.84, 39.8)
 Moderate atypia or worse2.77 (1.40, 5.50)2.80 (1.41, 5.56)2.75 (1.38, 5.47)
First six sputum samples
 Unreadable0.61 (0.19, 1.93)0.63 (0.20, 2.00)0.65 (0.21, 2.06)
 Normal1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild atypia1.13 (0.57, 2.24)1.13 (0.57, 2.26)1.10 (0.55, 2.20)
 Moderate atypia1.67 (0.78, 3.57)1.71 (0.80, 3.66)1.68 (0.79, 3.60)
 Worse than moderate atypia33.2 (15.3, 71.7)34.3 (15.7, 74.9)31.4 (14.2, 69.4)
 Moderate atypia or worse3.27 (1.66, 6.46)3.32 (1.68, 6.57)3.18 (1.60, 6.31)
  • a Hazard ratio, as estimated from proportional hazards analysis; CI, confidence interval.