Table 1

Subject characteristics and plasma vitamin C and carotenoid concentration in the three groups at baseline (mean and SD)a

Fruit and vegetableVitamin supplementPlacebo
No. (males/females)16 (8/8)12 (7/5)15 (7/8)
Age (yr)29 ± 824 ± 426 ± 6
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.5 ± 2.323.1 ± 1.722.6 ± 2.3
Protein (energy percentage)b17 ± 317 ± 315 ± 3
Fat (energy percentage)b29 ± 631 ± 329 ± 6
Carbohydrate (energy percentage)b54 ± 853 ± 655 ± 8
Dietary fiber (g/day)b20 ± 716 ± 714 ± 7
Alcohol (g/day)113 ± 1616 ± 1917 ± 18
Fruit and vegetable (g/day)2333 ± 178269 ± 119260 ± 180
Plasma vitamin C concentration (μm)75 ± 1963 ± 1467 ± 17
Plasma trans-β-catotene concentration (μg/100 ml)19 ± 1018 ± 1120 ± 15
  • a There were not statistically significant differences between the groups at baseline.

  • b Estimated from food frequency questionnaire.