Table 1

Multivariate adjusted mean levels of IGF-I, and IGFBP-3, by category of alcohol, energy, and nutrients, and the P for the linear trend across categories

All dietary factors were adjusted for: energy intake (quintiles), age in years (<45, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, ≥65), laboratory batch, menopausal status, type, and duration of hormone replacement (premenopausal, uncertain menopausal status, postmenopausal non-hormone user, postmenopausal and oral estrogen user, postmenopausal and oral estrogen plus progesterone use for <5 years, postmenopausal and oral estrogen plus progesterone use for ≥5 years, postmenopausal and other hormone user, missing menopausal status and/or hormone use), smoking status (never, past, current), physical activity in MET-hours/week (<4, 4–11.9, 12–24.9, 25+), parity and history of ever lactating (nulliparous, 1 birth and no lactation, 1 birth and lactation, 2 births and no lactation, 2 births and lactation, 3 births and no lactation, 3 births and lactation, 4+ births and no lactation, 4+ births and lactation, missing parity and/or lactation), and BMI in kg/m2 (<21, 21–22.9, 23–24.9, 25–28.9, ≥29). Total Vitamin A, total retinol, total vitamin E, total vitamins, and total zinc refer to intake from both supplements and food.

Dietary variableCategorya and range of intakeIGF-I (ng/ml)IGFBP-3 (ng/ml)
Energy (kilocalories/day)
Q1 <13831813935
Q2 1383–16241853944
Q3 1625–18711913992
Q4 1872–21541994078
Q5 ≥21551954092
P = 0.006P = 0.02
Alcohol (g/day) None1863910
 <51924004
 5–14.92044127
 ≥151714042
P = 0.65P = 0.02
Total fat (g/day)Q1 ≤47.82004191
Q2 47.9–54.31884000
Q3 54.4–58.81933995
Q4 58.9–63.61823923
Q5 >63.61873932
P = 0.08P = 0.006
Animal fat (g/day)Q1 ≤23.91874080
Q2 24–28.41924112
Q3 28.5–32.31873941
Q4 32.4–36.71943987
Q5 >36.71913920
P = 0.52P = 0.02
Vegetable fat (g/day)Q1 ≤19.11973968
Q2 19.2–23.11924082
Q3 23.2–26.41944027
Q4 26.5–30.81853989
Q5 ≥30.91843977
P = 0.04P = 0.63
Saturated fat (g/day)Q1 <16.01984158
Q2 16.0–18.51874057
Q3 18.6–20.51893951
Q4 20.6–22.61943982
Q5 >22.61843892
P = 0.28P = 0.005
Monounsaturated fat (g/day)Q1 <17.41984127
Q2 17.4–20.11944045
Q3 20.2–22.11813941
Q4 22.2–24.11883996
Q5 ≥24.21903936
P = 0.21P = 0.04
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)Q1 <8.51984001
Q2 8.5–9.91903982
Q3 10.0–11.01844032
Q4 11.1–12.51934044
Q5 >12.51863982
P = 0.22P = 0.92
trans-Unsaturated fat (g/day)Q1 <1.81954065
Q2 1.8–2.21854013
Q3 2.3–2.61954026
Q4 2.7–3.21893949
Q5 >3.21883989
P = 0.58P = 0.31
ω-3 fats from fish (g/day)Q1 <0.111783922
Q2 0.11–0.171974011
Q3 0.18–0.231903955
Q4 0.24–0.331904040
Q5 ≥0.341954116
P = 0.07P = 0.03
Total protein (g/day)Q1 <701743913
Q2 70–72.21884061
Q3 72.3–77.22014096
Q4 77.3–831924072
Q5 >831963900
P = 0.002P = 0.93
Animal protein (g/day)Q1 <451733895
Q2 45–511884101
Q3 52–562004075
Q4 56–631984097
Q5 >631923874
P = 0.002P = 0.82
Vegetable protein (g/day)Q1 ≤17.51893990
Q2 17.6–19.51863950
Q3 19.6–21.21943982
Q4 21.3–23.61904044
Q5 >23.61934077
P = 0.49P = 0.17
Carbohydrate (g/day)Q1 ≤1761813933
Q2 177–1901953996
Q3 191–2031924056
Q4 204–2211933997
Q5 >2211904059
P = 0.29P = 0.21
Fiber (g/day)Q1 ≤13.81833997
Q2 13.9–16.01853969
Q3 16.1–18.41953988
Q4 18.5–21.51964053
Q5 >21.51924034
P = 0.08P = 0.43
Glycemic load (units/day)Q1 <1281783914
Q2 128–1411974018
Q3 142–1531914069
Q4 154–1681944008
Q5 >1681914033
P = 0.10P = 0.24
Vitamin D (IU/day)Q1 <1561893969
Q2 156–2401823996
Q3 241–3451933969
Q4 346–4941933927
Q5 >4941954180
P = 0.12P = 0.07
Vitamin D, food sources only (IU/day)Q1 ≤1161853952
Q2 117–1571843972
Q3 158–2021844007
Q4 203–2662004070
Q5 >2661984040
P = 0.006P = 0.15
Calcium (mg/day)Q1 <6721904006
Q2 672–8731874029
Q3 874–10721904014
Q4 1073–13581913130
Q5 ≥13591934062
P = 0.49P = 0.95
Calcium, food sources only (mg/day)Q1 ≤5371823959
Q2 538–6401874006
Q3 641–7511904032
Q4 752–9111914041
Q5 ≥9122014003
P = 0.009P = 0.51
Total vitamin A (IU/day)Q1 <81361833905
Q2 8136–107041863972
Q3 10705–136361944062
Q4 13637–178952004141
Q5 >178951903962
P = 0.08P = 0.15
Vitamin A, food sources only (IU/day)Q1 <69981783946
Q2 6998–88211873941
Q3 8822–109091994108
Q4 10910–139631954051
Q5 >139631923994
P = 0.02P = 0.28
α-Carotene (μg/day)Q1 <3811853983
Q2 381–5491913988
Q3 550–7381984130
Q4 739–10961893956
Q5 >10961883983
P = 0.85P = 0.87
β-Carotene (μg/day)Q1 <25921803937
Q2 2593–35301923991
Q3 3531–44761984079
Q4 4477–59071874020
Q5 >59071944014
P = 0.15P = 0.34
β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/day)Q1 <12611803964
Q2 1261–17601863977
Q3 1761–22981974064
Q4 2299–31701974050
Q5 >31701923987
P = 0.03P = 0.52
Carotene (IU/day)Q1 ≤54071803918
Q2 5408–73081924041
Q3 7309–92291943973
Q4 9230–124931914119
Q5 ≥124941943990
P = 0.08P = 0.27
Lutein/Zeaxanthin (μg/day)Q1 ≤18671914018
Q2 1868–25861843969
Q3 2587–34131883950
Q4 3414–46831984118
Q5 >46831913986
P = 0.34P = 0.66
Lycopene (μg/day)Q1 <57081943973
Q2 5709–73501813831
Q3 7351–93611934051
Q4 9362–118791884036
Q5 ≥118801954149
P = 0.50P = 0.003
Total retinol (IU/day)Q1 ≤14871833991
Q2 1488–22721873975
Q3 2273–37502004033
Q4 3751–61251863969
Q5 >61251954073
P = 0.14P = 0.40
Retinol, food sources only (IU/day)Q1 ≥10291844025
Q2 1030–14391834008
Q3 1440–17931913949
Q4 1794–23831984096
Q5 ≤23841953963
P = 0.02P = 0.84
Total Vitamin E (mg/day)Q1 ≤6.01924045
Q2 6.1–8.21853878
Q3 8.3–19.61893983
Q4 19.7–177.21883988
Q5 ≤177.31974143
P = 0.36P = 0.11
Vitamin E, food sources only (mg/day)Q1 ≤5.01894044
Q2 5.1–5.71903996
Q3 5.8–6.51914016
Q4 6.6–7.41903974
Q5 ≥7.51914014
P = 0.83P = 0.67
Total Vitamin C (mg/day)Q1 <1261873910
Q2 127–1771964008
Q3 178–2501864028
Q4 251–4841964068
Q5 ≥4851864027
P = 0.97P = 0.13
Vitamin C, food sources onlyQ1 <971803919
Q2 97–1261974042
Q3 127–1531883923
Q4 154–1891934006
Q5 >1891924151
P = 0.20P = 0.03
Total zinc (mg/day)Q1 ≤9.61804045
Q2 9.7–10.91903967
Q3 11.0–12.61943977
Q4 12.7–18.11883971
Q5 ≥18.21984081
P = 0.02P = 0.68
Zinc, food sources only (mg/day)Q1 ≤9.21783974
Q2 9.3–10.11904067
Q3 10.2–11.01954107
Q4 11.1–12.11973984
Q5 ≥12.21923905
P = 0.02P = 0.24
Caffeine (mg/day)Q1 ≤701974016
Q2 71–1561833957
Q3 157–2611904075
Q4 262–3851954076
Q5 ≥3861873916
P = 0.66P = 0.70
  • a Quintile unless otherwise noted.