Table 2

Comparison of urinary excretion of isoflavonoids, lignans, and citrus flavonoids between breast cancer cases and controls, Shanghai, 1996–1998

Urinary excretion rateaMean ± SD% of differencebP from paired t testcMedian (25th, 75th percentile)% of differencebP from Wilcoxon test
CasesControlsCasesControls
Total isoflavonoidsd32.32 ± 43.7040.50 ± 62.55−20.1<0.0113.97 (3.54, 44.65)23.09 (7.07, 53.50)−39.50.01
 Parent compounds20.98 ± 28.8427.75 ± 37.73−24.4<0.018.17 (2.41, 33.26)15.71 (4.61, 35.99)−48.0<0.01
  Daidzein12.65 ± 18.1417.27 ± 28.26−26.7<0.014.95 (1.45, 19.45)9.90 (3.03, 21.61)−50.0<0.01
  Genistein6.65 ± 9.698.04 ± 9.88−17.30.022.19 (0.44, 9.36)4.37 (0.78, 11.43)−49.90.07
  Glycitein1.68 ± 2.822.43 ± 3.64−30.9<0.010.46 (0.11, 2.10)1.17 (0.28, 2.90)−60.7<0.01
 Metabolites11.33 ± 20.4012.75 ± 29.73−7.00.013.12 (0.83, 130)5.05 (1.45, 12.48)−38.20.13
  O-DMA3.88 ± 7.045.03 ± 20.38−22.90.281.05 (0.25, 3.75)1.41 (0.46, 4.05)−25.50.40
  Dihydrodaidzein5.32 ± 11.765.23 ± 9.221.70.350.81 (0.00, 5.40)1.67 (0.18, 5.68)−51.50.17
  Dihydrogenisteina2.13 ± 8.112.49 ± 8.59−14.50.090.13 (0.02, 0.84)0.27 (0.05, 1.13)−51.90.13
Lignans4.44 ± 7.437.18 ± 9.25−38.2<0.011.77 (0.34, 5.22)4.16 (0.82, 8.56)−57.5<0.01
 Enterolactone3.59 ± 5.646.28 ± 8.64−42.8<0.011.34 (0.23, 4.25)3.40 (0.50, 7.56)−60.6<0.01
 Enterodiol0.86 ± 3.090.90 ± 1.71−4.4<0.010.19 (0.06, 0.47)0.31 (0.11, 0.83)−38.7<0.01
Citrus flavonoids8.71 ± 18.806.10 ± 15.4042.70.450.83 (0.23, 4.92)0.78 (0.28, 2.69)6.40.29
 Hesperetin3.11 ± 8.751.63 ± 5.0190.80.520.13 (0.03, 0.64)0.14 (0.04, 0.39)−7.10.74
 Naringenin5.60 ± 12.614.47 ± 11.825.30.500.66 (0.13, 3.66)0.57 (0.16, 2.38)15.80.56
  • a Expressed as nmol/mg creatinine.

  • b Expressed as (meancases − meancontrols)/meancontrols or (mediancases − mediancontrols)/mediancontrols.

  • c From paired t tests using log-transformed data.

  • d Include daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-DMA, dihydrodaidzein, and dihydrogenistein.