Table 1

Comparison of cases and controls by selected demographic and risk factors, Shanghai, 1996–1998

CharacteristicaCases (n = 250)Controls (n = 250)Pb
Demographic factors
 Age (yr)49.1 ± 8.548.9 ± 8.70.85
 Education (%)
  Elementary and under16.018.0
  Middle and high school70.468.4
  College and high13.613.60.83
Non-dietary risk factors
 First-degree relative with breast cancer (%)3.61.60.16
 Ever diagnosed with fibroadenoma (%)10.43.2<0.01
 BMI23.6 ± 3.422.6 ± 3.50.08
 Body weight59.4 ± 9.057.7 ± 8.80.03
 WHR0.81 ± 0.050.80 ± 0.050.14
 Exercise regularly (%)22.833.20.01
 Age at menarche14.7 ± 1.714.9 ± 1.80.20
 Age at menopause (yr)c48.8 ± 4.248.2 ± 4.40.26
 Nulliparity5.24.00.52
 Number of live birthd1.6 ± 0.91.6 ± 0.90.87
 Age at first live birth (yr)d26.7 ± 4.326.1 ± 4.20.09
Nutritional factors
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)1919.8 ± 476.61847.1 ± 419.70.07
 Total fat intake (g/day)e36.09 ± 0.7737.31 ± 0.770.26
 Total fruit and vegetable intake (g/day)e481.6 ± 15.8473.7 ± 15.80.72
 Soy protein intake (g/day)e10.69 ± 0.6111.49 ± 0.610.36
 Total meat (g/day)e92.59 ± 3.4483.42 ± 3.440.06
  • a Unless otherwise specified, mean ± SD are presented.

  • b Ps were from the χ2 test (for categorical variables) or Wilcoxon signed-rank test (for continuous variables).

  • c Among postmenopausal women.

  • d Among ever-pregnant women.

  • e Adjusted for total energy intake.