Table 4

Adjusted ORs for breast cancer and 95% CIs in relation to detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels stratified by cigarette smoking, alcohol, and by consumption of grilled and smoked foods in most recent decade of life, Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, 1996–1997

Stratifying FactorMean (SD) PAH-DNA adduct levelsa per 108 nucleotidesCase, nControl, nMultivariate-adjustedb ORs (95% CI) for detectable PAH-DNA adduct levelsc
CasesControls
16.52 (24.18)15.14 (24.21)5754241.35 (1.01–1.81)
Active cigarette smoking exposure
 Never16.17 (24.99)16.89 (29.53)2351901.39 (0.90–2.15)
 Former18.33 (26.75)12.94 (17.05)2091541.44 (0.88–2.38)
 Current13.69 (15.08)15.09 (20.76)104621.28 (0.62–2.64)
Active and/or passive cigarette smoking
 Never either12.00 (13.87)18.79 (24.80)43420.51 (0.17–1.50)
 Ever passive only17.16 (26.95)16.22 (30.95)1881461.63 (0.99–2.70)
 Ever active only17.99 (30.33)11.95 (20.70)41323.06 (0.66–14.12)
 Ever both16.22 (22.25)13.97 (18.02)2631771.22 (0.78–1.89)
Alcohol intake
 Never7.23 (4.08)6.34 (4.33)1731471.42 (0.86–2.36)
 Ever7.42 (3.98)6.14 (4.09)3752601.37 (0.95–1.98)
Intake of grilled/BBQd beef, lamb, and pork in most recent decade of life
 Quantile 115.06 (23.68)14.80 (20.48)122870.69 (0.35–1.35)
 Quantile 216.49 (17.93)15.82 (23.02)91581.43 (0.64–3.20)
 Quantile 318.50 (24.67)18.33 (30.57)1231011.29 (0.68–2.42)
 Quantile 415.00 (15.75)16.09 (29.19)89781.78 (0.83–3.85)
 Quantile 517.39 (33.09)10.61 (10.88)115761.26 (0.64–2.49)
Intake of grilled/BBQ poultry and fish in most recent decade of life
 Quantile 115.46 (22.06)15.29 (20.08)1451040.66 (0.35–1.26)
 Quantile 214.50 (16.57)15.00 (17.07)112881.42 (0.70–2.89)
 Quantile 318.23 (23.78)21.01 (41.61)76511.50 (0.64–3.53)
 Quantile 415.24 (16.66)14.60 (27.22)89672.09 (0.91–4.80)
 Quantile 519.43 (35.81)13.00 (18.76)115892.02 (1.08–3.78)
Intake of smoked beef, lamb, and pork in most recent decade of life
 Quantile 117.59 (22.35)15.20 (21.17)1951481.34 (0.78–2.31)
 Quantile 215.52 (17.63)17.17 (34.82)80471.61 (0.69–3.77)
 Quantile 312.47 (16.69)15.04 (20.77)101901.87 (0.94–3.70)
 Quantile 420.48 (44.06)21.71 (38.84)48410.23 (0.06–0.93)
 Quantile 517.08 (25.17)10.94 (13.44)117771.88 (0.97–3.64)
Intake of smoked poultry and fish in most recent decade of life
 Quantile 116.33 (22.44)15.97 (23.35)3552671.45 (1.00–2.09)
 Quantile 215.48 (17.58)20.11 (47.92)44250.82 (0.18–3.64)
 Quantile 317.57 (34.64)11.37 (15.23)87641.39 (0.68–2.83)
 Quantile 423.83 (32.89)7.20 (7.38)151814.62 (0.75–284.21)
 Quantile 514.18 (13.85)14.65 (19.59)40270.34 (0.05–2.23)
Intake of all PAH foods in most recent decade of life
 Quantile 117.04 (23.49)15.58 (20.64)100700.80 (0.35–1.83)
 Quantile 214.79 (18.54)12.42 (16.20)108821.42 (0.72–2.79)
 Quantile 314.45 (19.09)24.44 (41.45)101800.75 (0.38–1.49)
 Quantile 418.05 (22.66)14.94 (19.81)108822.53 (1.17–5.45)
 Quantile 518.01 (34.54)9.90 (10.19)110781.28 (0.67–2.45)
  • a PAH-DNA adduct levels are presented untransformed.

  • b Adjusted for age at reference date (continuous), race, history of infertility problems, season of blood donation, religion, parity (continuous), total months of lactation (continuous), BMI at age 20, first-degree family history of breast cancer, age at first birth (centered, continuous).

  • c PAH-DNA adduct levels have been log transformed prior to logistic regression analyses (see “Materials and Methods”).

  • d BBQ, barbecued.