Table 3

Cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among homeless adults, by gender (n = 221)a

MalesFemalesTotal
Belief in benefits
 Screening is too much trouble for what I get out of it
  Agree21 (18%)8 (8%)29 (13%)
  Disagree84 (70%)85 (84%)169 (77%)
  No opinion/DK15 (12%)8 (8%)23 (11%)
Fatalism
 Nothing can be done about whether you get cancer or not
  Agree22 (18%)11 (11%)33 (15%)
  Disagree89 (74%)85 (84%)174 (79%)
  No opinion/DK9 (8%)5 (5%)14 (6%)
Efficacy of early detection
 How likely to be cured if detected early
  Very likely79 (66%)60 (59%)139 (63%)
  Somewhat likely31 (26%)37 (37%)68 (31%)
  Not at all likely6 (5%)1 (1%)7 (3%)
  DK4 (3%)3 (3%)7 (3%)
Perceived susceptibility
 How likely to get cancer compared with others same age
  More likely36 (30%)34 (34%)70 (32%)
  No different50 (42%)45 (45%)95 (43%)
  Less likely31 (26%)20 (20%)51 (23%)
  DK3 (3%)2 (2%)5 (2%)
Self-efficacy
 Difficult to get screening
  Yes23 (19%)13 (13%)36 (16%)
  No96 (80%)88 (89%)184 (83%)
  DK1 (1%)01 (1%)
 Could ask Dr. for a check-up
  Yes101 (84%)91 (90%)192 (87%)
  No17 (14%)9 (9%)26 (12%)
  DK2 (2%)1 (1%)3 (1%)
Social Support
 Family or friends encourage to get screening
  Yes22 (32%)35 (35%)57 (26%)
  No98 (82%)65 (64%)163 (74%)
  DK01 (1%)1 (1%)
Subjective Norms
 Family and friends have routine screening
  None38 (32%)22 (22%)60 (27%)
  Very few48 (40%)31 (31%)79 (36%)
  About half9 (8%)18 (18%)27 (12%)
  All or most6 (5%)16 (16%)22 (10%)
  DK19 (16%)14 (14%)33 (15%)
Knowledge
 Demonstrated accurate knowledge of screening guideline
  Rectal exam56 (60%)54 (70%)110 (64%)
  Stool exam50 (53%)50 (65%)100 (59%)
  Skin exam64 (53%)70 (69%)134 (61%)
  Endoscopy10 (11%)3 (4%)13 (8%)
  Mammogram67/76 (88%)67/76 (88%)
  Pap smear91/100 (91%)91/100 (91%)
 Demonstrated accurate knowledge of warning signs for cancer
  Constipation, diarrhea92 (77%)86 (85%)178 (81%)
  Sore not heal97 (81%)84 (83%)181 (82%)
  Change in a wart90 (75%)88 (87%)178 (81%)
  Cough not go away85 (71%)77 (76%)162 (73%)
  Inability to urinate84 (70%)70 (69%)154 (70%)
  Vaginal bleeding87/99 (88%)87/99 (88%)
  Vaginal discharge83/99 (84%)83/99 (84%)
  • a All findings nonsignificant.