Table 2

Adjusted RR of breast cancer by quintiles of cumulatively averaged and updated intake from fat, fat subtypes, and of total energy intake among 44,697 postmenopausal women with no reported history of benign breast disease in the Nurses’ Health Study, 1980–1994

NutrientQuintile (Q) of intakeP test for trenda
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Fatb
 No. of cases258214201216182
 RR1.0.94.941.07.940.57
 95% CI(0.78–1.13)(0.78–1.14)(0.89–1.30)(0.77–1.15)
Saturated fatb,c
 No. of cases259234198187193
 RR1.01.000.870.860.880.05
 95% CI(0.83–1.21)(0.71–1.07)(0.69–1.07)(0.70–1.12)
Unsaturated fatb,c
 No. of cases233225211207195
 RR1.01.111.141.201.160.30
 95% CI(0.92–1.35)(0.92–1.40)(0.96–1.49)(0.92–1.46)
Oleic acidb,c
 No. of cases250232187211191
 RR1.01.090.961.221.130.67
 95% CI(0.88–1.34)(0.75–1.24)(0.92–1.61)(0.81–1.57)
Linoleic acidb,c
 No. of cases284208193189197
 RR1.00.830.840.830.930.75
 95% CI(0.69–0.99)(0.69–1.02)(0.67–1.02)(0.74–1.16)
Trans fatty acidsb,c
 No. of cases256220221186188
 RR1.00.951.010.890.910.33
 95% CI(0.78–1.15)(0.83–1.23)(0.72–1.10)(0.73–1.13)
Proteinb
 No. of cases2151872072222400.62
 RR1.00.890.981.011.02
 95% CI(0.73–1.08)(0.80–1.19)(0.83–1.23)(0.84–1.25)
Carbohydratesb
 No. of cases2322072201992130.53
 RR1.00.941.000.900.88
 95% CI(0.78–1.15)(0.82–1.22)(0.73–1.11)(0.72–1.09)
Energy, kcalsb
 No. of cases2382102222071940.03
 RR0.910.950.890.81
 95% CI1.0(0.76–1.10)(0.79–1.14)(0.73–1.08)(0.67–0.99)
  • a P (Wald test) for continuous linear term.

  • b Adjusted for: age in months (underlying time variable); height (<63, 63–63.9, 64–65.9, ≥66 inches); age at menarche (<13, 13, ≥14, missing); combined age at menopause (45, 45–52, 53+) and use of postmenopausal hormones (never, past user, current <5 years, current ≥5 years); combined parity (nulliparous, 1–2, 3–4, 5+) and age at first birth (<25, 25–29, 30+); body mass index at age 18 (<19, 19–20.9, 21–22.9, ≥23, missing); weight change since age 18 (lost 2 kg or more, −2 to +2 kg, +2.1 to 5 kg; +5.1 to 10 kg, +10.1 to 20 kg, +20.1 to 25 kg, >25.1 + kg, missing); intake of total energy (quintiles); alcohol intake (none, <5 g/day, 5–14.9 g/day, 15+ g/day); family history of breast cancer (no, yes); and vitamin A (quintiles).

  • c Mutually adjusted for other fat subtypes.