Table 1

Selected characteristics of study subjects and ORs and 95% CIs for prostate cancer

CharacteristicNo. cases (%) (n = 590)No. controls (%) (n = 538)ORa (95% CI)
Age, years
 40–4938 (6.4)48 (8.9)
 50–54123 (20.8)106 (19.7)
 55–59198 (33.6)199 (37.0)
 60–64231 (39.2)185 (34.4)
Race
 Caucasian560 (94.9)523 (97.2)1.00
 African-American30 (5.1)15 (2.8)1.85 (0.98–3.48)
Education
 High school or less117 (19.8)101 (18.8)1.00
 Some college166 (28.1)148 (27.5)0.99 (0.70–1.41)
 BA/BS degree160 (27.1)152 (28.3)0.93 (0.66–1.32)
 Graduate school147 (24.9)137 (25.5)0.94 (0.66–1.34)
First-degree family history of prostate cancer
 No480 (81.4)481 (89.4)1.00
 Yes110 (18.6)57 (10.6)1.94 (1.37–2.74)
BMI
 18–23147 (24.9)113 (21.0)1.00
 24–26225 (38.1)194 (36.1)0.89 (0.65–1.21)
 27–29125 (21.2)140 (26.0)0.68 (0.48–0.96)
 ≥3093 (15.8)91 (16.9)0.79 (0.54–1.15)
Physical activity, times per week
 None104 (17.6)77 (14.3)1.00
 ≤1135 (22.9)154 (28.6)0.67 (0.46–0.97)
 2–3198 (33.6)180 (33.5)0.84 (0.59–1.20)
 ≥4153 (25.9)127 (23.6)0.90 (0.61–1.31)
History of BPHb
 No393 (66.6)442 (82.2)1.00
 Yes, ≤2 years ago70 (11.9)26 (4.8)2.14 (1.30–3.51)
 Yes, 3–4 years ago63 (10.7)33 (6.1)1.34 (0.83–2.18)
 Yes, ≥5 years ago64 (10.9)37 (6.9)1.22 (0.77–1.95)
Smoking habits
 Never214 (36.3)205 (38.1)1.00
 Former275 (46.6)249 (46.3)1.04 (0.80–1.34)
 Current101 (17.1)84 (15.6)1.16 (0.82–1.64)
Number of alcohol drinks per weekc
 Nondrinker52 (8.8)60 (11.2)1.00
 ≤3132 (22.4)118 (21.9)1.32 (0.84–2.06)
 4–13252 (42.7)235 (43.7)1.28 (0.84–1.93)
 ≥14154 (26.1)125 (23.2)1.45 (0.94–2.26)
Prostate cancer screening historyd
 Never23 (3.9)32 (5.9)1.00
 DRE only138 (23.4)317 (58.9)0.60 (0.34–1.07)
 PSA and DRE429 (72.7)189 (35.1)3.12 (1.76–5.54)
  • a Adjusted for age.

  • b Benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosed at specified time periods before reference date, adjusted for age and frequency of serum PSA blood test within the 5-year period before reference date.

  • c Lifetime alcohol intake from age 15 to reference date.

  • d Digital rectal exam or serum PSA test 1 or more years before reference date.