Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants according to the presence or absence of a family history of colorectal cancera

No family history n = 81,802Family history n = 6,956
Age (yr)46.746.8
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.324.3
Alcohol intake (g/day)6.66.8
Dietary intakeb
 Folate (μg/day)c365365
 Methionine (g/day)1.91.9
 Animal fat (g/day)52.251.9
 Dietary fiber (g/day)16.816.9
 Beef, pork or lamb as a main dish (servings/week)2.62.6
 Calcium (mg/day)c732732
 Vitamin D (IU/day)c292291
Regular aspirin use (%)d23.526.4
Multivitamin supplement use (%)34.034.1
Mean duration of multivitamin use at baseline (yr)e4.44.3
Mean duration of multivitamin use in 1994 (yr)f8.08.1
Screening endoscopy use at baseline (%)5.45.7
Screening endoscopy use through study follow-up (%)g20.343.1
Regular vigorous exercise (%)b44.746.0
Mean pack-years of smoking before age 30 yr3.02.9
  • a Based on reports of a family history of colorectal cancer in one or more first-degree relatives obtained at study initiation. Values are means directly standardized according to the age distribution of the cohort.

  • b Dietary values represent the mean energy-adjusted intake.

  • c Includes the use of supplements.

  • d Defined as aspirin use on two or more days/week.

  • e Mean duration of use among multivitamin users at baseline.

  • f Mean duration of use among multivitamin users in 1994.

  • g Includes screening endoscopy use during study follow-up and at baseline.

  • hRegular vigorous exercise was defined as vigorous physical activity (enough to work up a sweat) on one or more days/week.