Table 2

RRs and 95% CIs for stomach cancer mortality associated with regular use of vitamin C, vitamin E, and multivitamin supplements at cohort enrollmenta CPS-II, 1982–1998

Men and women combinedMen onlyWomen only
Vitamin C use
 At enrollment
  Nonuser
   RR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
   Deaths/participants1,403/816,167924/370,332479/445,835
  Regular user
   RR (95% CI)0.83 (0.68–1.01)0.82 (0.64–1.06)0.84 (0.61–1.17)
   Deaths/participants162/126,826102/49,89460/76,932
 Duration of use at enrollment (yr)
  <10
   RR (95% CI)0.68 (0.51–0.91)0.71 (0.50–1.01)0.64 (0.40–1.04)
   Deaths/participants66/65,26843/25,36123/39,907
  ≥10
   RR (95% CI)1.00 (0.73–1.38)1.04 (0.71–1.53)0.94 (0.54–1.64)
   Deaths/participants65/41,56544/17,38121/24,184
  Unknown years
   RR (95% CI)0.97 (0.63–1.49)0.76 (0.40–1.44)1.20 (0.67–2.14)
   Deaths/participants31/19,99315/7,15216/12,841
Vitamin E use
 At enrollment
  Nonuser
   RR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
   Deaths/participants1,476/889,523972/401,373504/488,150
  Regular user
   RR (95% CI)1.02 (0.82–1.27)1.08 (0.82–1.42)0.93 (0.65–1.34)
   Deaths/participants130/91,90384/34,90546/56,998
 Duration of use at enrollment (yr)
  <10
   RR (95% CI)1.11 (0.84–1.46)1.12 (0.79–1.58)1.11 (0.71–1.75)
   Deaths/participants71/55,16745/19,76326/35,404
  ≥10
   RR (95% CI)0.99 (0.66–1.47)0.92 (0.56–1.50)1.14 (0.57–2.26)
   Deaths/participants38/22,46725/10,00713/12,460
  Unknown years
   RR (95% CI)0.82 (0.49–1.37)1.26 (0.65–2.42)0.48 (0.21–1.12)
   Deaths/participants21/14,26914/5,1357/9,134
Multivitamin use
 At enrollment
  Nonuser
   RR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
   Deaths/participants1,297/723,383854/338,206443/385,177
  Regular user
   RR (95% CI)0.89 (0.77–1.03)0.91 (0.76–1.09)0.87 (0.69–1.10)
   Deaths/participants259/201,652159/76,724100/124,928
 Duration of use at enrollment (years)
  <10
   RR (95% CI)0.93 (0.75–1.14)1.00 (0.77–1.29)0.81 (0.57–1.15)
   Deaths/participants105/88,68269/33,56636/55,116
  ≥10
   RR (95% CI)0.93 (0.75–1.14)0.99 (0.76–1.29)0.83 (0.58–1.19)
   Deaths/participants111/79,40873/31,47138/47,937
  Unknown years
   RR (95% CI)0.77 (0.56–1.06)0.54 (0.33–0.90)1.04 (0.69–1.58)
   Deaths/participants43/33,56217/11,68726/21,875
  • a Regular vitamin use defined as 15 or more times per month. RRs adjusted for age, sex (for combined sex results), race, education, smoking, consumption of vegetables, citrus fruits/juices, and high-fiber grains, and use of aspirin and vitamin supplements (vitamin C, vitamin E, and multivitamin supplements).