Table 1

Stomach cancer mortality risk factors by vitamin supplement use at enrollment,a CPS-II, 1982–1998

No use of multivitamins, vitamin C, or vitamin E (n = 311,184) %Vitamin C regular useb (n = 76,932) %Vitamin E regular useb (n = 56,998) %Multivitamin regular useb (n = 124,928) %No use of multivitamins, vitamin C, or vitamin E (n = 285,743) %Vitamin C regular useb (n = 49,894) %Vitamin E regular useb (n = 34,905) %Multivitamin regular useb (n = 76,724) %
Age (yr)
 Less than high school16.08.710.18.618.09.911.510.1
 High school graduate32.327.029.328.021.815.516.916.1
 Some college27.233.533.233.125.827.529.027.6
 College graduate13.416.714.916.916.221.520.021.8
 Graduate school8.913.211.512.516.324.821.823.6
Cigarette smoking
Vegetablesc (servings/day)
Citrus fruits/juices (servings/wk)
High-fiber grainsd (servings/wk)
Aspirin use (times/mo)
  • a Percentages adjusted to the age distribution of the entire study population. Table does not include participants who reported only irregular vitamin use. Regular use categories for different vitamin supplements are not mutually exclusive.

  • b Regular use defined as 15 or more times per month.

  • c Based on consumption of six food items (carrots, tomatoes, squash/corn, green leafy vegetables, raw vegetables, cabbage/broccoli/Brussels sprouts).

  • d Based on consumption of three food items (bran/corn muffins, brown rice/whole wheat/barley, oatmeal/shredded wheat).