Table 2

Plasma antioxidant levels before and after intervention by treatment groupa

Vitamin C group (n = 42)Mixture group (n = 39)Placebo group (n = 45)
Before interventionAfter interventionBefore interventionAfter interventionBefore interventionAfter intervention
Ascorbic acid (mg/dl)0.83 ± 0.41b1.41 ± 0.280.68 ± 0.371.29 ± 0.490.65 ± 0.370.65 ± 0.41
α-Tocopherol (mg/dl)1.31 ± 0.361.17 ± 0.291.36 ± 0.421.82 ± 0.571.44 ± 0.471.31 ± 0.61
γ-Tocopherol (mg/dl)0.34 ± 0.200.30 ± 0.160.27 ± 0.140.19 ± 0.130.34 ± 0.150.30 ± 0.15
  • a Treatment group changes (before/after): ascorbic acid plasma levels increased significantly after intervention in the vitamin C and mixture groups: P < 0.0001. α-Tocopherol plasma levels increased significantly in the mixture group (P < 0.0001) but not in the vitamin C group. γ-Tocopherol plasma levels decreased significantly only in the mixture group (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were seen in the placebo group. Before intervention, no significant treatment group differences were seen. After intervention, differences were as follows. Ascorbic acid: vitamin C group versus placebo group and mixture versus placebo, P < 0.0001; vitamin C group versus mixture group, P = 0.161. α-Tocopherol: vitamin C group versus placebo group, P = 0.19; mixture group versus placebo group, P < 0.0001; vitamin C group versus mixture group, P < 0.0001. γ-Tocopherol: vitamin c group versus placebo group, P = 0.98; mixture group versus placebo group, P = 0.0004; vitamin C group versus mixture group, P = 0.0005.

  • b Values are the mean ± SD. To convert values to micromoles/liter, divide by 0.01761 for ascorbic acid, 0.043061 for α-tocopherol, and by 0.041666 for γ-tocopherol.