Table 1

Baseline characteristicsa

Intervention groupAll smokers (n = 126)
Vitamin C (n = 42)Mixture (n = 39)Placebo (n = 45)
Sex (M/F)19/2319/2020/2558/68
Age (yrs)46.3 ± 11.345.7 ± 11.646.1 ± 14.246.1 ± 12.4
BMI (kg/m2)27.5 ± 5.927.1 ± 5.327.9 ± 5.627.5 ± 5.6
Race (white/black/other)25/14/322/15/226/14/573/43/10
Years of smoking27.3 ± 12.726.5 ± 11.026.9 ± 13.326.9 ± 12.3
Cigarettes/day23.8 ± 8.724.0 ± 8.121.3 ± 6.122.9 ± 7.7
Fruit intakeb (servings/day)0.82 ± 0.60.85 ± 0.60.74 ± 0.70.80 ± 0.65
Vegetable intake (servings/day)2.16 ± 1.42.34 ± 1.62.39 ± 1.62.30 ± 1.5
Dietary vitamin C intake (mg/day)76.9 ± 51.893.7 ± 62.778.0 ± 61.482.4 ± 58.8
Dietary vitamin E intake (mg/day)8.9 ± 5.111.0 ± 8.48.8 ± 3.79.5 ± 6.0
Dietary provitamin A intake (mg/day)3.1 ± 2.73.5 ± 2.63.7 ± 4.23.4 ± 3.3
Baseline plasma
 Cotinine (ng/ml)265 ± 99268 ± 110259 ± 129264 ± 113
 Total carotenes (μg/dl)89.6 ± 36.086.2 ± 33.090.8 ± 39.288.9 ± 36.1
 C-Reactive protein (mg/l)4.2 ± 4.83.0 ± 3.83.4 ± 4.23.5 ± 4.3
 Transferrin saturation (%)29.2 ± 8.726.3 ± 9.027.0 ± 9.327.5 ± 9.0
 TGS (mg/dl)119.5 ± 74.5108.5 ± 54.7121.3 ± 69.6116.8 ± 66.8
 Tchol (mg/dl)195 ± 40191 ± 43204 ± 45197 ± 43
  • a Data are from visit 2, prior to randomization, except for transferrin saturation, which is from visit 1. Results are reported as means ± SD. No intervention group differences were statistically significant.

  • b Includes fruits and fruit juices.