Table 2

Body size, insulin, glucose, and IGF axis variables at baseline and changes over 15 and 39 weeks (mean ± SE)

VariablesBaselineChange from baseline to 15 weeksChange from baseline to 39 weeks
ControlTreatmentPaControlTreatmentPaControlTreatmentPa
Weight (kg)74.6 ± 2.6068.2 ± 2.150.060.49 ± 0.350.54 ± 0.360.920.28 ± 0.590.33 ± 0.590.95
Body fat %40.7 ± 0.1238.4 ± 0.130.2−0.43 ± 0.40−1.97 ± 0.420.01−0.41 ± 0.49−1.86 ± 0.490.04
Total energy intake (kjoules)7178 ± 3848236 ± 2950.03−44 ± 71−78 ± 660.7385 ± 96−10 ± 800.46
Total physical activity (MET min−1 × day−1)1663 ± 911524 ± 750.24161 ± 115268 ± 1150.51156 ± 6656 ± 660.29
Total lean (kg)41.8 ± 1.0239.6 ± 0.870.10.54 ± 0.341.44 ± 0.250.010.44 ± 0.261.34 ± 0.260.02
Total fat (kg)29.8 ± 1.8925.5 ± 1.520.08−0.06 ± 0.29−0.88 ± 0.300.06−0.04 ± 0.43−0.83 ± 0.430.21
Waist circ. (cm)95.1 ± 2.5888.5 ± 2.110.051.06 ± 0.50−0.04 ± 0.500.132.07 ± 0.701.28 ± 0.700.43
Insulin (uU/ml)4.46 ± 0.595.18 ± 0.540.420.81 ± 0.38−0.29 ± 0.350.0551.16 ± 0.450.05 ± 0.420.10
Glucose (mg/dl)92.1 ± 1.6390.1 ± 1.500.421.21 ± 1.36−1.92 ± 1.270.13−0.36 ± 1.50−3.55 ± 1.370.15
Total IGF-I (ng/ml)240 ± 12.52218 ± 11.700.245.86 ± 10.44−30.47 ± 9.750.0235.93 ± 11.106.50 ± 10.360.08
IGFBP-1 (ng/ml)55.60 ± 7.1549.52 ± 6.680.57−2.41 ± 5.22−0.67 ± 4.880.82−6.55 ± 4.46−10.77 ± 4.170.52
IGFBP-3 (ng/ml)3551 ± 1433716 ± 1330.44−106 ± 103−45.6 ± 960.69570 ± 179138 ± 1670.11
IGF-I residual from IGFBP-1b (ng/ml)4.60 ± 7.14−1.29 ± 6.680.58−0.08 ± 5.10−0.02 ± 4.760.993.89 ± 4.37−3.63 ± 4.080.25
IGF-I residual from IGFBP-3b (ng/ml)−108 ± 138105 ± 1290.30−0.42 ± 113−2.90 ± 1050.9999.8 ± 154−63.6 ± 1440.48
  • a Baseline comparisons of body size variables, physical activity, and energy intake are from two-sided t tests. Between group comparisons of 15 and 39 week changes for body size, physical activity, and energy intake variables are means from regression models adjusted for baseline levels of the dependent variable. Baseline comparisons of serum hormone and glucose levels are means from regression models adjusted for baseline levels of age, body fat, lean mass, energy intake, and physical activity. Between group comparisons of changes in serum hormone and glucose levels over 15 and 39 weeks are means from regression models adjusted for baseline levels of the dependent variable, as well as baseline levels of age, body fat, lean mass, energy intake, and physical activity.

  • b IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 were predicted from IGF-I in two separate linear regression models. The residuals were output as a surrogate for bioavailable IGF-I.