Table 3

Results of epidemiological studies of DNA repair polymorphisms and risk of various cancers

Gene and polymorphismCancerReferenceCases (n), study typeaAllele frequencybCase/Control genotype frequenciescComparison groupsdOR (95% CI)eAdjustment variablesInteractions studied
Base excision repair
OGG1
  S326CEsophageal cancerXing et al. 2001 (34)101–250, H0.40Ca: 40,39,21%CC vs. SS/SC 1.9 (1.3–2.6) Age, sex, smokingNo interaction w/smokingf
Co: 34,53,13%
Lung cancerSugimura et al. 1999 (35)101–250, H0.41Ca: 35,48,17%CC vs. SS/SC1.7 (0.9–3.2) squamous-cell onlyAge, smokinghi-smokers 2.3 (0.8–7.1); lo-smokers 1.2 (0.6–2.5)
Co: 32,54,14% 3.0 (1.3–6.8)
Wikman et al. 2000 (36)101–250, H0.22Ca: 65,30,5%CC vs. SS2.2 (0.4–11.8)NoneNo joint effect w/GSTM1, GSTP1, tumor type or smoking status
Co: 57,41,2%
Le Marchand et al. 2002 (46)251–500, P0.45 HawaiianCa: 41,37,22%CC vs. SS 2.1 (1.2–3.7) Age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, saturated fat and vegetable intakesLargest increase in risk for Hawaiians 3.6 (1.0–11.9). Suggested interaction with total vegetable intake: protective association among CCs with > median intake (P = 0.24). No smoking interaction suggested, no difference by subtype.
0.42 JapaneseCo: 44,43,13%
0.22 Caucasian
ProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.27Non-familialCC vs. SS 3.3 (1.2–8.8) AgeNone
Ca: 61,36,3%
Co: 55,36,9%
101–250, H0.27FamilialCC vs. SS2.1 (0.7–6.6)AgeNone
Ca: 61,35,4%
Co: 55,36,9%
Stomach cancerHanaoka et al. 2001 (56)51–100, HJB 0.43JBCC/SC vs. SSJB 1.0 (0.5–1.9)Age, sexNo difference by subtype. No evidence of interactions with smoking or vegetable or beef intake.
Ca: 34,50,16%
Co: 35,44,21%
101–250, HNJB 0.22NJBCC/SC vs. SSNJB 0.8 (0.6–1.3)Age, sexPossible interactions with smoking and beef intake, but not with vegetable intake. No difference by subtype.
Ca: 64,32,4%
Co: 60,36,4%
  7143agProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.15Non-familial gg vs. aa 5.1 (1.1–23.3) AgeNone
Ca: 68,26,5%
Co: 71,28,1%
101–250, H0.15Familial gg vs. aa 8.2 (1.5–45.5) AgeNone
Ca: 64,32,5%
Co: 71,28,1%
  11657agProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.13Non-familial gg vs. aa 9.8 (1.3–76.9) AgeNone
Ca: 70,25,5%
Co: 74,25,1%
101–250, H0.13Familial gg vs. aa 13.9 (1.6–125.0) AgeNone
Ca: 67,29,5%
Co: 74,25,1%
  3402gaProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.35Non-familial aa vs. gg Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 40,44,16%
Co: 43,45,12%
  3574gaProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.23Non-familial aa vs. gg Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 67,28,5%
Co: 60,34,6%
  6170gcProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.25Non-familial cc vs. gg Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 63,33,4%
Co: 58,34,7%
  9110agProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.23Non-familial gg vs. aa Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 66,31,3%
Co: 60,34,7%
  10629cgProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.50Non-familial gg vs. cc Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 28,44,27%
Co: 30,41,30%
  10660atProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.23Non-familial tt vs. aa Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 65,32,4%
Co: 61,32,7%
  11826atProstateXu et al. 2002 (47)101–250, H0.23Non-familial tt vs. aa Not given; n.s.AgeNone
Ca: 66,31,3%
Co: 60,33,7%
XRCC1
  R194WBladder cancerStern et al. 2001 (29)101–250, HAf Amer 0.16Af Amer:RW/WW vs. RR0.6 (0.3–1.0)Age, sex, raceSmoking interaction suggested (n.s.; increased protection among less-smokers)
Cauc 0.09Ca: 95,5,0%
Co: 72,23,0%
Cauc:
Ca: 88,12,0%
Co: 83,17,0%
Breast cancerDuell et al. 2001 (31)251–500, PAf Amer 0.06Af Amer:RW/WW vs. RRAf Amer: 0.7(0.3–1.5)AgeSmoking, menopausal status, occupational exposures—n.s.
Ca: 91,8,1%
Co: 88,12,0%
251–500, PCauc 0.07Cauc:RW/WW vs. RRCauc: 0.7 (0.4–1.3)AgeSmoking, menopausal status, occupational exposures—n.s.
Ca: 90,10,0%
Co: 86,14,1%
Esophageal cancerLee et al. 2001 (33)101–250, H0.30Ca: 51,45,4%RR vs. RW/WWNot given; n.s.Age, sex, smoking, alcohol, arecaStratified by drinking, n.s.
Co: 47,46,7%
Lung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.05Not givenNot givenNot given; n.s.Age and pack-yearNone
Ratnasinghe et al. 2001 (38)101–250, N0.34Ca: 48,44,8%RW/WW vs. RR0.7 (0.4–1.2)Radon, smokingSmoking P = 0.05, alcohol P = 0.04
Co: 40,50,10%
David-Beabes and London 2001 (41)101–250, HAf Amer 0.08Af Amer:RW/WW vs. RRAf Am: 0.4(0.2–0.9)Age, sex, smokingAmong smokers (>20 cigs/day) Af Amer: 0.2 (0.1–0.9)
Ca: 92,6,1%
Co: 84,15,1%
101–250, HCauc 0.06Cauc:RW/WW vs. RRCauc: 1.0 (0.5–1.8)Age, sex, smokingAmong smokers (>20 cigs/day) Cauc: 0.5 (0.2–1.1)
Ca: 87,12,0%
Co: 88,12,0%
SCCHNSturgis et al. 1999 (48)101–250, H0.07Ca: 89,11,1%RW/WW vs. RR0.7 (0.4–1.3)gAge, sex, race, smoking, alcoholCombining risk genotypes further increase risk 0.3 (0.1–0.7)g
Co: 86,14,0%Oral/pharyngeal cancers: 0.4 (0.2–0.8)g
Olshan et al. 2002 (51)51–100, H0.08Ca: 84,16,0%RW/WW vs. RR1.3 (0.6–2.9)Age, sexNonsignificant smoking interaction; further increase in risk if ever-smoker
Co: 84,16,0%
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.09Ca: 86,14,0%Not givenNot given; n.s.NoneNone
Co: 83,17,0%
Stomach cancerShen et al. 2000 (55)101–250, P0.35Ca: 51,41,8%RW/WW vs. RR0.7 (0.4–1.1)gAge, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol, H. pyloriPossible strengthened effect with combined R399Q genotype
Co: 42,46,11%gastric cardia: 0.5 (0.3–0.9)g
  R280HBladder cancerStern et al. 2001 (29)101–250, HAf Amer 0,Af Amer:RH/HH vs. RR1.1 (0.5–2.2)Age, sex, raceSmoking, no interaction
Cauc 0.05Ca: 89,11,0%
Co: 100,0,0%
Cauc:
Ca: 92,8,0%
Co: 72,7,1%
Esophageal cancerLee et al. 2001 (33)101–250, H0.10Ca: 74,26,0%RR vs. RH/HHNot given; n.s.Age, sex, smoking, alcohol, arecaStratified by drinking, n.s.
Co: 80,19,1%
Lung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.05Not givenNot givenNot given; n.s.Age and pack-yearNone
Ratnasinghe et al. 2001 (38)101–250, N0.07Ca: 78,19,3%RH/HH vs. RR1.8 (1.0–3.4)Radon, smokingAlcohol P = 0.02
Co: 85,15,0%
  R399QBladder cancerStern et al. 2001 (29)101–250, HAf Amer 0.15Af Amer:RQ/QQ vs. RR0.7 (0.4–1.3)Age, sex, raceSmoking interaction suggested (n.s.; increased protection among less-smokers)
Cauc 0.36Ca: 47,53,0%
Co: 69,31,0%
Cauc:
Ca: 40,50,10%
Co: 40,37,13%
Matullo et al. 2001b (28)101–250, H0.39Ca: 43,47,10%RQ/QQ vs. RRUrological controls: 0.6 (0.2–1.7)NoneOR further decreased for ex-smokers, 0.3 (0.1–1.0), still n.s.
Urological co: 33,51,16%Non-urological controls: 0.8 (0.3–2.3)
Non-urological co: 40,46,14%
Breast cancerDuell et al. 2001 (31)251–500, PAf Amer 0.14Af Amer:RQ/QQ vs. RRAf Amer:AgePossible interactions with smoking and occupation exposure to ionizing radiation
Ca: 65,32,3% 1.7 (1.1–2.4)
Co: 74,24,2%
251–500, PCauc 0.36Cauc:RQ/QQ vs. RRCauc: 1.0 (0.8–1.4)AgePossible interactions with smoking and occupation exposure to ionizing radiation
Ca: 42,45,13%
Co: 43,41,16%
Esophageal cancerLee et al. 2001 (33)101–250, H0.30Ca: 61,31,8%RR vs. RQ/QQNot given; n.s.Age-, sex, smoking, alcohol, areca-adjustedSuggested interactions of drinking, smoking, and areca chewing. Drinkers, 0.4 (0.1–0.9)g; non-drinkers, 1.3 (0.5–3.4)g
Co: 50,41,9%
Lung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.35Not givenNot givenNot given; n.s.Age and pack-yearNone
Ratnasinghe et al. 2001 (38)101–250, N0.24Ca: 55,37,7%RQ/QQ vs. RR1.0 (0.6–1.6)Radon, smokingAlcohol, smoking, radon, arsenic, n.s.
Co: 54,37,5%
Divine et al. 2001 (39)101–250, P0.32Ca: 48,36,17%QQ vs. RQ/RR 2.5 (1.1–5.8) Age, smoking, raceRestricted to non-Hispanic, risk increases to age, smoking, race adjusted, 3.3 (1.2–10.7)
Co: 46,45,10%
David-Beabes and London 2001 (41)101–250, HAf Amer 0.18Af Amer:QQ vs. RRAf Amer: 0.6 (0.2–2.3)Age, sex, smokingAmong smokers (>20 cigs/day), Af Amer, 0.3 (0.1–0.9)
Ca: 68,30,2%
Co: 67,29,4%
101–250, HCauc 0.36Cauc:QQ vs. RRCauc: 0.6 (0.3–1.3)Age, sex, smokingAmong smokers (>20 cigs/day) Cauc, 0.4 (0.2–1.0)
Ca: 48,42,9%
Co: 40,47,13%
Park et al. 2002b (44)101–250, H0.22Ca: 52,39,9%QQ vs. RR2.1 (0.8–5.4)Age, pack-years
Co: 60,36,4%
101–250, HSquamous cellQQ vs. RR 3.3 (1.2–9.2) Age, pack-yearsSmoking interaction suggested: ≤40 pack-years 5.8 (1.5–22.7); <40 pack-years 1.4 (0.3–6.8)
Ca: 46,41,13%
Co: 60,36,4%
Skin cancer, nonmelanomaNelson et al. 2002 (53)251–500, P0.38Basal cell carcinomaQQ vs. RR0.7 (0.4–1.0)Age, sex, tendency to burnSuggested interaction with number of lifetime sunburns suggested protection if <3 lifetime sunburns; suggested increased risk if 3+
Ca: 43,46,12%
Co: 41,43,17%
101–250, P0.38Squamous cell carcinomaQQ vs. RR 0.6 (0.3–0.9) Age, sex, tendency to burnSignificant interaction with number of lifetime sunburns (P < 0.02): suggested protection if <3 lifetime sunburns; suggested increased risk if 3+. Among QQ, OR (3+ burns vs. <3) 6.8 (2.4–19.2); among RR this OR 1.5 (0.9–2.5)
Ca: 44,46,10%
Co: 41,43,17%
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.36Ca: 47,15,12%Not givenNot given; n.s.NoneNone
Co: 55,36,9%
SCCHNSturgis et al. 1999 (48)101–250, H0.34Ca: 46,38,16%QQ vs. RR/RQ1.6 (1.0–2.6)Age, sex, race, smoking, alcoholCurrent smokers 3.2 (1.3–7.9) and drinkers 2.2 (1.1–4.6). Combining risk genotypes of R194H increase risk 3.2 (1.3–7.8) for oral/pharangeal cancers
Co: 43,47,11%
Olshan et al. 2002 (51)51–100, H0.36Ca: 46,51,3%QR vs. RR0.8 (0.4–1.1)Age, sexSuggestion of nonsignificant smoking interaction (increased risk with Q allele and smoking)
Co: 39,51,11%QQ vs. RR 0.1 (0.04–0.6)
Stomach cancerShen et al. 2000 (55)101–250, P0.26Ca: 49,44,7%RQ/QQ vs. RR1.5 (1.0–2.4)Age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol, H. pyloriPossible combined genotype effect w/R194H
Co: 57,36,8%
Nucleotide excision repair
ERCC1
   19007gaSkin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.45Ca: 35,50,15%Not givenn.s.NoneNone
Co: 27,55,18%
  3′ UTR 8092 caAdult gliomaChen et al. 2000 (27)101–250, P0.27Ca: 60,35,5%ac/aa vs. cc0.7 (0.4–1.1)AgeNone
Co: 51,44,5%Oligoastrocytoma only (n = 28) 0.2 (0.1–0.6)g
XPC
  1457-1461 delins (at)nSCCHNShen et al. 2001 (50)251–500, H0.33Ca: 36,47,17%++ vs.−− 1.9 (1.1–3.1) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol, cancer siteAge > 66 5.6 (2.2–14.0)
Co: 45,43,12%
XPD
  22541caSCCHNSturgis et al. 2000 (49)101–250, H0.45Ca: 33,51,16%aa vs. cc0.9 (0.5–1.6)Age, sex, smoking, alcoholNo interactions with age, sex, smoking or alcohol
Co: 31,49,20%
Skin cancer, BCCVogel et al. 2001 (54)51–100, H0.41Ca: 24,54,21%ca/aa vs. cc1.9 (1.0–3.8)NonePossible difference in risk by family history. No interaction w/number of lifetime sunburns
Co: 38,42,20%no BCC fam hist:
3.3 (1.4–8.2)
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.40Ca: 35,53,12%Not givenNot given; n.s.NoneNone
Co: 33,54,13%
  D312NLung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.44Ca: 45,36,19%DN/NN vs. DD 0.5 (0.3–1.0) g Age and pack-yearLargest D312N effect among light smokers (> protection than non- and heavy smokers)
Co: 31,51,18%
Zhou et al. 2002 (42)1001–1500, H0.33Ca: 42,44,14%NN vs. DD 1.5 (1.1–2.0) Age, sex, pack-years, smoking status, time since cessationSignificant interaction with smoking (P < 0.01); nonsmokers 3.4 (1.9–6.0), heavy smokers 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
Co: 44,46,10%
Hou et al. 2002 (45)101–250, H0.37Ca: 37,51,12%DN/NN vs. DDNot given; n.s.Age, sex, smoking (pack-years or environmental tobacco smoke)Suggested interactions with smoking and age. Ever-smokers: 0.8 (0.4–1.5), never-smokers: 1.8 (0.9–3.3). Never-smokers < 70 yr: 2.6 (1.1–6.5).
Co: 41,44,15%
Skin cancer, BCCVogel et al. 2001 (54)51–100, H0.38Ca: 43,37,20%DN/NN vs. DD1.1 (0.6–1.9)NonePossible difference in risk by family history. No interaction w/number of lifetime sunburns.
Co: 44,37,19%BCC fam hist: 5.3 (1.2–23.9)
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.36Ca: 39,43,18%Not givenNot given; n.s.NoneNone
Co: 42,45,13%
  L751QBladder cancerMatullo et al. 2001b (28)101–250, H0.42Ca: 32,53,15%LQ/QQ vs. LLUrologic controls: 0.9 (0.4–2.1); Non-urologic controls: 0.7 (0.3–1.9)NoneIn each smoking group, L751Q is n.s.; however, ORs are <1 in non- and ex-smokers and current smokers: LQ/QQ vs. LL, 2.5 (0.9–7.0)
Urological co: 32,60,8%
Nonurological co: 26,57,17%
Lung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.42Not givenNot givenNot given; n.s.Age and pack-yearNone
David-Beabes et al. 2001 (40)251–500, HCauc 0.35,Ca: 44,42,14%LQ/QQ vs. LL1.1 (0.8–1.5) Results similar stratified by raceEthnicity, age, sex, smokingNone
Af Amer 0.25Co: 48,42,10%
Zhou et al. 2002 (42)1001–1500, H0.37Ca: 39,46,15%QQ vs. LL1.2 (0.9–1.5)Age, sex, pack-years, smoking status, time since cessationSignificant interaction with smoking (P = 0.01): non-smokers 2.0 (1.1–3.4), heavy smokers 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
Co: 40,46,13%
Park et al. 2002a (43)101–250, H0.06Ca: 88,12,0%LQ/QQ vs. LLNot given; n.s.Age, pack-yearsNo interactions with age, smoking status, or pack-years. No difference by subtype.
Co: 89,11,0%
Hou et al. 2002 (45)101–250, H0.37Ca: 38,44,17%LQ/QQ vs. LLNot given; n.s.Age, sex, smoking (pack-years or environmental tobacco smoke)Suggested interactions with smoking and age. Ever-smokers: 0.8 (0.4–1.5), never-smokers: 2.0 (1.1–3.8). Never-smokers < 70 years: 3.2 (1.3–8.0).
Co: 43,40,17%
SCCHNSturgis et al. 2000 (49)101–250, H0.11Ca: 40,44,16%QQ vs. LL1.7 (1.0–2.8)Age, sex, smoking, alcoholn.s., but effect of 751Q increased among older, current smokers and current drinkers.
Co: 44,45,11%
Skin cancer, BCCVogel et al. 2001 (54)51–100, H0.36Ca: 34,49,17%LQ/QQ vs. LL1.2 (0.6–2.2)NoneNo interaction w/number of lifetime sunburns
Co: 38,52,10%
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.40Ca: 38,43,19%Not given; n.s.None
Co: 34,51,15%
XPF
  5′ UTR 2063 taSkin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.31Ca: 62,30,8%ta/aa vs. tt0.6 (0.4–1.0)g n.s. when Bonferronni adjustedNoneSuggestion of interaction w/XRCC3
Co: 49,40,11%
   30028 tcSkin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.33Ca: 58,32,10%tc/cc vs. tt0.6 (0.4–1.0)g n.s. when Bonferronni adjustedNoneSuggestion of interaction w/XRCC3
Co: 47,41,12%
Double-strand break repair
BRCA2
  N372HBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.27Ca: not givenHH vs. NN1.7 (0.8–3.5)NoneNone
Co: 51,43,4%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 21501–2000, P0.27Ca: not givenHH vs. NN 1.4 (1.1–1.8) NoneNone
Co: 53,41,6%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 3251–500, P0.25Ca: not givenHH vs. NN1.8 (0.9–3.6)NoneNone
Co: 54,41,4%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 4501–750, P0.29Ca: not givenHH vs. NN1.1 (0.7–1.6)NoneNone
Co: 50,43,7%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 5251–500, P0.22Ca: not givenHH vs. NN1.1 (0.6–1.9)NoneNone
Co: 61,33,5%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 2–5>3000, P0.22–0.29Ca: not givenHH vs. NN 1.3 (1.0–1.6) NoneNone
Co: 53,40,7%
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1–5>3000, H/P0.22–0.29Ca: not givenHH vs. NN 1.3 (1.1–1.6) NoneNone
Co: 53,41,6%
Spurdle et al. 2002 (32)1501–1500, P0.26Ca: 52,39,9%HH vs. NN/NH 1.4 (1.0–2.0) Age, country of birth, state, education, marital status, number of live births, height, weight, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, family historySimilar results when stratified by family history or restricted to non-mutation carriers or to Caucs.
Co: 54,40,6%
 5′UTR-26agBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.28Not givenag vs. aa 0.6 (0.5–0.8) NoneNone
Healey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1–5>3000, H/PNot givenNot givenag vs. aa Not given, n.s. NoneNone
  N289HBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.03Not givenNH vs. NN1.2 (0.6–2.7)NoneNone
  T1915MBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.05Not givenTM vs. TT0.4 (0.1–1.2)NoneNone
  R2034CBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.01Not givenRC vs. RR0.7 (0.2–2.3)NoneNone
  K3326XBreast cancerHealey et al. 2000 (30) , Series 1101–250, H0.01Not givenKX vs. KK1.7 (0.4–6.9)NoneNone
XRCC3
  T241MBladder cancerMatullo et al. 2001b (28)101–250, H0.35Ca: 26,52,22%TM/MM vs. TTUrological controls: 2.8 (1.3–6.0)NoneSignificant interaction with NAT-2, controlling for age
Urological co: 50,37,13%Non-urological controls: 2.7 (1.4–5.4)
Nonurological co: 49,28,23%
Lung cancerButkiewicz et al. 2001 (37)51–100, H0.33Not givenNot givenNot significantAge and pack-yearNone
David-Beabes et al. 2001 (40)251–500, HCauc 0.38,Ca: 50,40,10%TM/MM vs. TT1.0 (0.7–1.3)Ethnicity, age, sex, smokingNone
Af Amer 0.23Co: 45,43,11%Results similar stratified by race
Skin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.30Ca: 31,52,17%TM/MM vs. TT 2.4 (1.4–3.9) h NoneSuggestion of interaction w/XPF
Co: 52,37,11%
 5′ regionSkin cancer, melanomaWinsey et al. 2000 (52)101–250, H0.23Ca: unclearNot givenNot given; n.s.NoneNone
 4541agCo: unclear
  • a Study types: H, hospital; P, population-based; N, nested case-control.

  • b Rare-allele frequency in controls: Af Amer, African American; Cauc, Caucasian; JB, Japanese Brazilian; NJB, non-Japanese Brazilian.

  • c Frequencies of individuals homozygous for the common allele, heterozygous, and homozygous for the rare allele respectively. Ca, case; Co, control.

  • d Genotypes represent amino acids in uppercase letters and nucleotides in lowercase letters.

  • e Bold signifies exclusion of 1.0 from 95% CI.

  • f w/, with; n.s., not significant; cig, cigarette; BCC, basal cell carcinoma.

  • g For consistency across studies, ORs and 95% CIs are inverted from those presented in the paper so that to individuals homozygous for the common allele are part of the referent group.

  • h Calculation of OR unclear.