Table 6

Prospective studies of selenium in relation to urinary tract cancer incidence

StudyCountrySexCasesMean selenium level (cases/controls)ExposureComparisonSiteRR (95% CI)
Nomura et al., 1987 (13)USMen2912.11/12.49 μg/dlSerumHighest vs. lowest quintileBladder0.32
Helzlsouer et al., 1989 (7)USBoth3511.1/11.7 μg/dlSerumHighest vs. lowest tertileBladder0.49 (0.16–1.49)
Knekt et al., 1990 (8)FinlandMen266.16/6.53 μg/dlSerumFour higher vs. lowest quintileUrinary tract0.34 (0.06–2.06)
Knekt et al., 1990 (8)FinlandWomen97.64/6.67 μg/dlSerumFour higher vs. lowest quintileUrinary tract2.51 (0.13–47.9)
Garland et al., 1995 (12)USWomen280.826/0.812 μg/gToenailMean differencesUrinary tractP = 0.58a
Present studyNetherlandsBoth4310.540/0.561 μg/gToenailHighest vs. lowest quintileUrinary tract0.67 (0.46–0.97)
  • a P for mean difference between cases and controls.