Table 5

Incidence RRs for transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder according to toenail selenium levels, with respect to tumor invasiveness and morphology; Netherlands Cohort Study 1986–1992

Quintiles of toenail selenium (boundaries in μg/g)Noninvasive (TIS/Ta/T1)Invasive (T2–4)
Non-papillarya (n = 16)Papillaryb (n = 180)Non-papillarya (n = 81)Papillaryb (n = 108)
RR (95% CI)cRR (95% CI)cRR (95% CI)cRR (95% CI)c
1 (≤0.483)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
2 (0.483 to ≤0.530)1.24 (0.31–4.88)1.23 (0.80–1.88)1.11 (0.63–1.95)0.96 (0.58–1.59)
3 (0.530 to ≤0.573)1.07 (0.25–4.58)0.63 (0.37–1.05)0.45 (0.21–0.96)0.44 (0.23–0.84)
4 (0.573 to ≤0.630)1.28 (0.26–6.42)0.78 (0.46–1.31)0.17 (0.05–0.57)0.64 (0.34–1.20)
5 (>0.6300)0.83 (0.13–5.20)0.91 (0.55–1.50)0.62 (0.30–1.28)0.36 (0.17–0.75)
P for linear trend0.920.18<0.01<0.01
Increment in standard unitsd1.08 (0.74–1.58)1.06 (0.87–1.29)0.84 (0.69–1.02)0.82 (0.72–0.94)
  • a ICD-O:M8120.

  • b ICDO:M8130.

  • c Adjusted for age, sex, number of cigarettes smoked/day, and years of cigarette smoking.

  • d z-scores based on In-transformed toenail selenium levels (increment of 0.202 μg/g).