Table 2

Nicotine plus its metabolites and urinary mutagenicity according to NAT2 and CYP1A2 phenotypes and GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in 97 cigarette smokers

Pheno-genotypeSubjects N (%)Nicotine plus metabolites (mg/mmol creatinine; mean ± SD)Urinary mutagenicitya (revertants/mmol creatinine)
CYP 1A2
 PM48 (50%)0.76 ± 0.641384 ± 1206
 EM49 (50%)0.76 ± 0.422176 ± 1525**
NAT2
 Slow69 (73%)0.77 ± 0.581844 ± 1520
 Rapid28 (27%)0.72 ± 0.441636 ± 1172
GSTM1
 Active42 (43%)0.64 ± 0.43*1775 ± 1454
 *0/*055 (57%)0.86 ± 0.431817 ± 1418
GSTT1
 Activeb72 (75%)0.79 ± 0.561834 ± 1476
 *0/*024 (25%)0.66 ± 0.481536 ± 1205
CYP1A2 EM/NAT2 slow 29 (30%)0.78 ± 0.412392 ± 1660*
Other combinationsc68 (70%)0.78 ± 0.411525 ± 1238
  • a On YG1024 + S9.

  • b GSTT1 was not determined in one subject.

  • c CYP1A2 EM/NAT2 rapid, CYP1A2 PM/NAT2 rapid, and CYP1A2 PM/NAT2.

  • Statistical comparisons: urinary mutagenicity (revertants/mmol creatinine) CYP1A2 PM versus EM and CYP1A2 EM/NAT2 slow versus other combinations Mann-Whitney U test, z = 2.65, **, P < 0.001 and 2.37; *, P = 0.017; nicotine plus its metabolites GSTM1 *0/*0 versus active Mann-Whitney U-test, z = 2.34, *, P = 0.02.