Table 6

Studies of cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk according to menopausal status

First author, study yearStudy designNo. of cases/controls (or no. in cohort)Comparison categoriesComparisonPremenopausalPostmenopausal
(or age ≥ 50)OR (95% CI)(or age ≥ 50)OR (95% CI)
Baron, 1996 (47)Population case-control6888/9529Pre/postmenopausal30–40 years’ duration vs. neverPremenopausal1.3 (0.9–1.9)Postmenopausal1.1 (1.0–1.2)
Brownson, 1988 (180)Screening case-control456/1693Pre/postmenopausal15+ years’ duration vs. neverPremenopausal1.8 (0.9–3.7)Postmenopausal0.9 (0.6–1.4)
Chu, 1990 (188)Population case-control4720/4682Pre/postmenopausal40+ pack-years vs. never smokedPremenopausal1.5 (1.0–2.3)Postmenopausal1.0 (0.7–1.6)
Hirose, 1995 (57)Hospital case-control711/17205Pre/postmenopausal10+ cigarettes/day vs. nonsmokersPremenopausal1.3 (1.0–1.7)Postmenopausal1.1 (0.8–1.6)
Johnson, 2000 (60)Population case-control869/909Pre/postmenopausalHighest years smokeda vs. neverPremenopausal2.1 (0.9–4.7)Postmenopausal1.7 (1.1–2.7)
London, 1989 (192)Prospective cohort1788/117557Pre/postmenopausal25+ cigarettes/day vs. nonsmokersPremenopausal1.0 (0.8–1.3)Postmenopausal1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Meara, 1989 (179)Hospital case-control998/998Age 25–44/age 45–6915+ cigarettes/day vs. neverAge 25–441.2 (0.7–1.8)Age 45–690.8 (0.6–1.1)
Millikan, 1998 (66)Population case-control497/472Pre/postmenopausal>20 years’ duration vs. neverPremenopausal1.4 (0.8–2.6)Postmenopausal1.7 (1.1–2.6)
Palmer, 1991 (175)Population case-control607/1214Age 30–49/age 50–6935+ cigarettes/day vs. neverAge 30–491.9 (1.0–3.7)Age 50–690.9 (0.4–2.1)
Pawlega, 1992 (181)Population case-control127/250Age 35–49/age 50–75+20+ years’ duration vs. neverAge 35–490.5 (0.1–2.3)Age 50–75+1.5 (0.7–3.2)
Ranstam, 1995 (70)Population case-control388/448Pre/postmenopausal11+ cigarettes/day vs. neverPremenopausal1.2 (0.7–2.1)Postmenopausal0.8 (0.4–1.6)
Rautalahti, 1993 (71)Population case-control67/157Pre/postmenopausal15+ cigarettes/day vs. nonsmokersPremenopausal2.6 (0.8–8.1)Postmenopausal0.9 (0.2–3.7)
Rohan, 1989 (185)Population case-control426/420Pre/postmenopausalHighest pack-yearsb vs. neverPremenopausal1.6 (0.7–3.8)Postmenopausal1.6 (0.9–2.8)
  • a 21+ years smoked (premenopausal women) and 35+ years smoked (postmenopausal women).

  • b > 10.75 pack-years (premenopausal women) and 25+ pack-years (postmenopausal women).