Table 3

Diet and lifestyle factors and polyp risk

Controls n (%)Cases with hyperplastic polyps (n = 219)Cases with adenomatous polyps (n = 437)Cases with both types of polyps (n = 138)
Cases n (%)Age- and sex-adjustedMultivariate-adjustedCases n (%)Age- and sex-adjustedMultivariate-adjustedCases n (%)Age- and sex-adjustedMultivariate-adjusted
OR95% CIORa95% CIaOR95% CIORa95% CIaOR95% CIORa95% CIa
Percentage of calories from fatb
 <26166 (24)47 (22)1.01.0101 (23)1.01.022 (16)1.01.0
 26–30168 (24)46 (22)0.90.6–1.50.80.4–1.693 (22)0.90.6–1.31.00.6–1.720 (15)0.90.4–1.60.70.3–2.0
 31–35181 (26)56 (26)1.00.6–1.51.30.7–2.4132 (31)1.00.7–1.51.10.7–1.854 (40)1.91.1–3.32.21.0–5.2
 36+173 (25)65 (30)1.20.8–1.91.10.6–2.0105 (24)1.00.7–1.40.60.3–1.140 (29)1.71.0–3.11.20.5–3.2
P0.350.590.960.160.010.24
Percentage of calories from fatb
 <235172 (25)52 (24)1.01.099 (23)1.01.036 (26)1.01.0
 235–340173 (25)64 (30)1.10.7–1.71.10.6–2.0123 (28)1.10.8–1.61.20.7–2.035 (26)0.80.5–1.30.50.2–1.4
 341–570173 (25)49 (23)0.90.6–1.41.00.5–2.0123 (28)1.10.8–1.61.20.7–2.139 (29)0.90.6–1.51.30.6–2.9
 571+170 (25)49 (23)0.90.6–1.41.30.7–2.586 (20)0.80.5–1.11.00.6–1.726 (19)0.60.4–1.10.70.3–1.9
P0.440.440.250.910.180.95
Vitamin D (IU/day)b
 <135172 (25)51 (24)1.01.091 (21)1.01.044 (32)1.01.0
 135–270173 (25)54 (25)0.90.6–1.51.10.5–2.0133 (31)1.20.8–1.71.50.9–2.636 (26)0.60.4–1.00.60.2–1.3
 271–460172 (25)46 (22)0.80.5–1.31.00.5–2.098 (23)0.90.6–1.31.30.7–2.227 (20)0.50.3–0.80.50.2–1.3
 461+171 (25)63 (29)1.20.7–1.81.60.8–2.9109 (25)1.00.7–1.41.30.7–2.229 (21)0.50.3–0.90.50.2–1.2
P0.570.170.570.580.010.09
Calcium (mg/day)b
 <600173 (25)58 (27)1.01.0117 (27)1.01.043 (32)1.01.0
 600–900172 (12)69 (14)1.20.8–1.71.00.5–1.8108 (25)0.90.6–1.20.90.5–1.641 (30)0.90.6–1.50.80.4–1.8
 901–1275171 (38)45 (29)0.80.5–1.20.80.4–1.494 (22)0.80.5–1.10.80.5–1.426 (19)0.50.3–1.00.20.1–0.7
 1276+172 (25)42 (20)0.70.5–1.10.60.3–1.1112 (26)0.90.6–1.31.20.7–2.026 (19)0.60.3–1.00.50.2–1.3
P0.050.080.470.660.010.04
Multivitamin use (folate, B6, B12)
 No445 (68)144 (69)1.01.0314 (76)1.01.0108 (81)1.01.0
 Yes207 (32)65 (31)1.10.8–1.51.30.8–2.2102 (24)0.70.6–1.00.80.5–1.225 (19)0.50.3–0.90.90.4–1.8
P0.780.230.040.280.010.72
Smoking status
 Never334 (45)46 (21)1.01.0158 (36)1.01.030 (22)1.01.0
 Former270 (38)105 (48)2.51.7–3.72.51.4–4.4201 (46)1.31.0–1.71.61.1–2.567 (48)2.11.3–3.51.40.6–3.3
 Current104 (15)68 (31)4.73.0–7.44.12.2–7.678 (18)1.71.2–2.51.30.8–2.341 (30)5.53.2–9.66.12.8–13.5
P<0.001<0.001<0.010.12<0.001<0.001
No. of pack-years
 0339 (48)49 (23)1.01.0162 (38)1.01.030 (22)1.01.0
 >0–25222 (32)82 (38)2.51.7–3.72.11.2–3.7146 (34)1.31.0–1.81.51.0–2.347 (35)2.41.4–3.92.00.9–4.5
 26+142 (20)86 (40)3.72.5–5.64.82.6–8.6124 (29)1.51.1–2.01.30.8–2.359 (43)3.72.2–6.04.21.9–9.3
P<0.001<0.0010.010.14<0.001<0.001
Alcohol (g/day)
 0199 (28)47 (22)1.01.0122 (28)1.01.036 (26)1.01.0
 >0–7397 (56)116 (53)1.30.9–1.91.40.8–2.5204 (47)1.00.8–1.41.20.8–1.960 (44)1.10.7–1.71.10.5–2.4
 8+110 (16)56 (26)1.81.2–2.91.60.7–3.9111 (25)1.51.0–2.12.21.1–4.342 (30)1.91.1–3.33.31.2–8.8
P0.010.200.060.040.020.05
Regular nonaspirin NSAID use
 No561 (80)184 (84)1.01.0390 (90)1.01.0117 (85)1.01.0
 Yes143 (20)34 (16)0.80.5–1.20.60.3–1.145 (10)0.50.4–0.80.40.2–0.721 (15)0.90.6–1.50.70.3–1.6
P0.290.10<0.01<0.010.740.38
Regular aspirin use
 No485 (69)153 (70)1.01.03041.01.0107 (78)1.01.0
 Yes222 (31)66 (30)0.90.6–1.21.00.6–1.61320.80.6–1.00.70.5–1.131 (22)0.50.3–0.70.60.3–1.3
P0.450.930.070.13<0.010.18
  • a Multivariate adjustment for age, sex, BMI, HRT (yes/no), smoking (pack-years), and alcohol, where appropriate.

  • b Quartiles of nutrient intake were determined based on the distribution among controls.