Table 1

Family history of cancer and risk of RRC

CasesaControlsaOR (95% CI)Adjusted ORb (95% CI)
Kidney cancer
 First-degree relatives only
  No5245401.01.0
  Yes2192.3 (1.1–5.1)2.5 (1.04–5.9)
 First- and/or second-degree relatives
  No4825291.01.0
  Yes32112.9 (1.5–5.8)2.9 (1.4–6.3)
Other urinary tract (bladder, and others) cancers
 First-degree relatives only
  No5315371.01.0
  Yes14121.2 (0.5–2.5)0.7 (0.3–1.7)
 First- and/or second-degree relatives
  No4925201.01.0
  Yes19161.2 (0.6–2.3)0.8 (0.4–1.7)
Nonurinary tract cancers
 First-degree relatives only
  No2742911.01.0
  Yes2652551.1 (0.9–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
 First- and/or second-degree relatives
  No1451571.01.0
  Yes3703861.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.4)
  • a The sum of cases or controls in each exposure category might be less than the total number of subjects because of exclusion of subjects with missing values.

  • b ORs were adjusted for number of cigarettes smoked/day, current smoking status, body mass index, history of hypertension, regular use of analgesics and amphetamines, and cruciferous vegetable intake (in quintiles).