Table 1

Urinary cotinine, dietary intake of antioxidants, and plasma levels of (pro-) vitamins by ETS exposure among nonsmoking women

Exposure to husbands’ smokingP-trend
Never ExposedPreviously Exp.1–10 cig/day11–20 cig/day21+ cig/day
NMeanSDNDiffaSENDiffaSENDiffaSENDiffaSE
 Cotinine (ng/ml)4607.957.44600.620.651225.20.981377.20.945611.71.40<0.001
Dietary intake
 β-Carotene (μg/day)4603429.12043.9460−5.3136.2122−22.4206.0137−275.1198.256−233.1287.100.171
 Retinol (μg/day)460611.9606.44602.441.9122−37.163.41375.561.05642.288.400.873
 L-ascorbic acid (mg/day)460151.090.2460−7.15.1122−5.27.7137−13.17.456−9.610.700.082
 α-Tocopherol (mg/day)4609.03.8460−0.120.251220.010.38137−0.250.36560.890.520.567
Plasma levels
 α-Carotene (ng/ml)42557.170.04343.65.0114−7.87.6134−3.17.151−16.010.660.143
 β-Carotene (ng/ml)436345.6351.3445−0.0221.7117−32.032.9136−59.031.254−96.545.700.007
 Retinol (ng/ml)433523.0292.7449−17.519.5117−13.429.5136−15.828.15425.741.000.952
 L-ascorbic acid (mg/dl)4080.940.36425−0.030.03111−0.060.04122−0.050.0448−0.080.050.050
 α-Tocopherol (ng/ml)43710971.85023.944982.3337.4117−636.9512.3136−383.7486.854−698.9712.000.153
 Lycopene (ng/ml)395357.4221.939623.520.211132.730.012142.029.244−61.944.500.678
Plasma levels of β-carotene and L-ascorbic acid after additional adjustment for alcohol consumption, body mass index, dietary vitamin intake, and vitamin supplementation
 β-Carotene (ng/ml)436345.6351.34452.3021.6117−40.032.7136−55.631.054−93.945.500.008
 L-ascorbic acid (mg/dl)4080.940.36425−0.030.02111−0.070.04122−0.050.0448−0.080.050.023
  • a Mean difference in exposed versus unexposed from linear regression analysis adjusted for center, age, and women’s education.