Table 1

Results reported by studies evaluating the effect of total alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk

Study and locationStudy sizea and locationSmoking adjustmentComparisonOR/RR (95% CI or P)
Case control studies
Kabat and Wynder, 1984 (10)37/37 MNAb (Never smokers)No difference in alcohol consumption foundNot presented
97/97 F
(U.S.)
Koo, 1988 (37)88/137 F (China)NA (Never smokers)Drinking ≥1 times/wk (yes/no)1.8 (0.9–3.7)
Restrepo et al., 1989 (16)102/181 M and F (Colombia)Cigarettes/dayNondrinker1.0
Former drinker0.6 (P > 0.05)
Occasional drinker0.9 (P > 0.05)
Habitual drinker1.1 (P > 0.05)
Pierce et al., 1989 (15)71/71 M (Australia)“Smoking pattern” (smoking prevalence, time since cessation of smoking and cigarettes/day)Drinks/wk (continuous variable)1.0 (0.99–1.01)
Duration, yr (continuous variable)1.0 (0.96, 1.03)
Bandera et al., 1992 (20)280/564 white M (U.S.)Smoking history (pack-yr)>22 drinks/mo vs. drinking less(>40 pack-yr cigarette smoking)
1.6 (1.0–2.5) (No association for light smokers)
De Stefani et al., 1993 (24)327/350 M (Uruguay)Pack-yr in four categoriesNondrinker vs. ml of pure ethanol/dayc
1–60 ml1.4 (0.9–2.0)
61–1761.6 (0.9–2.0)
>1762.2 (1.3–3.0)
P for trend: 0.002
Dosemeci et al., 1997 (29)1,210/829 M (Turkey)Smoking categories (never, <20 pack-yr, 20–29 pack-yr, >29 pack-yr)vs. nondrinker
Amount (cl/wk)
1–351.6 (0.8–2.9)
36–1401.7 (1.1–2.7)
>1411.7 (1.7–2.9)
P for trend <0.001
Carpenter et al., 1998 (31)261/615 M and F (U.S.)Indicator variables for pack-yr and yr since quitting smokingNever-3 drinks/mo vs. >3 drinks/day1.1 (0.5–2.4)
Cohort studies
Kvale et al., 1983 (9)116/10,602 MNever-, ex- and current smokers of 1–9, 10–19, and ≥20 cigarettes/dayHighest tertile of alcohol consumption vs. lowestAll subjects: 1.3 (P = 0.37)
11.5 follow-up (Norway)Low vitamin A consumers: 3.6 (P = 0.03)
Gordon and Kannel, 1984 (40)42/2,106 MCigarettes/dayoz/mo as continuous variable1.0 (P > 0.05) M
9/2,641 F0.7 (P > 0.05) F
22 yr follow-up (Framingham Study, U.S.)
Pollack et al., 1984 (11)89/7,837 MSmoking status(oz/mo based on usual consumption during 1 mo at baseline)(CI or P not shown)
14-yr follow-up (Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study, Hawaii)Adjustment for amount smoked did not change estimates
None1.0
<50.7
5–141.3
15–391.7
>39 (or >1.18 l./mo)1.9
P for trend: 0.003
Kono et al., 1986, 1987 (12 , 41)74/5,477 MNon, ex- and current smokers of <10, 10–19, ≥20 cigarettes dayNondrinker1.0
19-yr follow-up (Japanese Physicians Study, Japan)Ex-drinker0.6 (0.2–1.5)
Occasional drinker0.4 (0.2–0.8)
Daily drinker of
<54 ml of alcohol0.8 (0.4–1.4)
≥54 ml of alcohol0.9 (0.5–1.7)
Stemmermann et al., 1990 (18)209/8,006 MCurrent smoking status, age started smoking and no. of cigarettes/day (current smokers), ex-smoker status, maximum no. of cigarettes/day and yr smoking maximum amount (ex-smokers)(oz/mo based on 24-h recall)
22-yr follow-up (Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study, Hawaii)01.0
<50.7 (0.5–1.2)
5–140.9 (0.6–1.5)
15–391.4 (1.0–2.1)
>391.1 (0.7–1.6)
P for trend 0.09
Bandera et al., 1997 (28)395/27,544 MCigarettes/day and yr smokingHighest vs. lowest tertile of consumption
130/20,456 F1.1 (0.9–1.4) M
8 yrP for trend: 0.001
(New York State Cohort Study, U.S.)1.0 (0.6–1.6) F
P for trend: 0.8
(Squamous cell carcinoma cases)
1.5 (0.97–2.3)
Cohort studies (cont’d)
Prescott et al., 1999 (32)480/15,107 MSix categories of present smoking and eight categories of duration of smoking (Best fit based on likelihood ratio test)No. of drinks/wk:(M)
194/13,053 F<11.0
(Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Centre of Preventive Medicine, and the Copenhagen Male Study, Denmark)1–60.8 (0.6–1.2)
7–131.0 (0.7–1.4)
14–200.9 (0.6–1.3)
21–411.2 (0.9–1.7)
>411.6 (1.1–2.3)
P for trend: 0.002
(No relationship for F)
Woodson et al., 1999 (33)1059/27,111 M smokersCigarettes smoked per day and total yr smokedNondrinker vs. drinker1.2 (0.9–1.4)
7.7 yr (ATBC Study, Finland)Highest quartile of drinking vs. lowest quartile of g/day)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
(Adenocarcinoma)
1.7 (1.0–2.8)
Breslow et al., 2000 (34)158/20,004 M and F 8.5 yr (U.S.)Packs/day and duration of smoking as continuous variablesHighest quartile of alcohol intake compared with lowest1.3 (0.8–2.0)
(Nonsmokers)
2.3 (1.1–4.6)
  • a Study size refers to no. of cases and controls in case-control studies and no. of cases and total subjects in cohort studies.

  • b NA, not applicable.

  • c Beer: 60 ml of pure ethanol/liter; wine: 120 ml/liter; hard liquor: 460 ml/liter.