Table 2

Vitamin intake, smoking history, mean anti-HMdU aAbs, and plasma vitamins in smokers at baseline stratified by age 50 and gender

Age ≤ 50aAge > 50bP for age differencec
Women
 Take vitamins33%67%<0.05
 Take vitamin C21%57%0.005
 Completed college82%40%<0.05
 Age (yr)39.7 ± 1.16d58.5 ± 1.13e<0.001
 Age started smoking16.0 ± 0.4618.5 ± 0.99<0.001
 Years smoking23.7 ± 1.0640.0 ± 1.40<0.001
 Pack-years28.1 ± 2.4552.3 ± 3.31<0.001
 Anti-HMdU aAbs27.08 ± 3.5219.35 ± 2.67<0.05
 α-Tocopherol (μg/ml)12.2 ± 0.6116.4 ± 1.340.005
 Cryptoxanthin (ng/ml)93.1 ± 19.8686.5 ± 14.56NSd
 Lutein/Zeaxanthin (ng/ml)188.9 ± 24.5168.1 ± 17.2NS
Men
 Take vitamins30%32%NS
 Take vitamin C17%14%NS
 Completed college71%71%NS
 Age (yr)38.1 ± 0.9757.8 ± 1.10<0.001
 Age started smoking17.0 ± 0.4917.6 ± 0.69NS
 Years smoking20.9 ± 1.1140.2 ± 1.16<0.001
 Pack-years27.7 ± 2.8954.6 ± 3.47<0.001
 Anti-HMdU aAbs15.24 ± 2.3017.52 ± 2.49NS
 α-Tocopherol (μg/ml)15.0 ± 1.4214.8 ± 1.06NS
 Cryptoxanthin (ng/ml)67.4 ± 5.5940.5 ± 6.74<0.005
 Lutein/Zeaxanthin (ng/ml)192.0 ± 19.05137.9 ± 16.8<0.05
  • a In this column, n = 33 for women and n = 49 for men.

  • b In this column, n = 30 for women and n = 28 for men.

  • c Only those variables that were significantly different by age 50 in either men or women (P ≤ 0.05) are shown. Ps for difference in variables by age (≤50 or >50) were based on t test of natural log transformed means or χ2.

  • d NS, not significant.