Table 1

Characterization of broccoli sprout dosing preparationsa

Broccoli sprouts were grown, processed, and analyzed before each of the four clinical studies. Doses (in μmol) were apportioned based on cyclocondensation results.
Study and dosing preparationInducer activityb (units/g fresh weight)Cyclocondensationb (μmol/g fresh weight)Glucosinolates by paired-ion chromatographycMyrosinase (units/g fresh weight)
TotalITCTotalITCTotal (μmol/g fresh weight)MethylthioalkylIndole
GR + GIdGE (percent of total)
HS37
 Glucosinolate405,00020,5008.550.338.9078.918.12.9-
 Isothiocyanate389,000332,0007.497.66----
 Daikon control178,000163,0004.224.40----
HS40
 Intact sprouts518,000<1,0008.46ND10.974.718.27.13.03
HS42
 Intact sprouts--9.080.058.8075.021.63.4-
HS43
 Isothiocyanate--8.430.1811.077.620.51.9-
  • a ITC, isothiocyanates; GR, glucoraphanin; GI, glucoiberin; GE, glucoerucin; ND, not detectable; -, not determined. See Fig. 3<$REFLINK> for glucosinolate structures.

  • b Myrosinase was added to the assay to determine total activity (glucosinolates plus isothiocyanates); mock reactions without myrosinase were performed to obtain the contribution of isothiocyanates alone.

  • c Estimation of total glucosinolates excludes minor unidentified peaks, which constitute <5% of the known glucosinolates.

  • d Glucoraphanin:glucoiberin ratio is 2:1 or more.