Table 1

Risk factors for lung cancer comparing cases to controlsa

Risk factorCases (n = 108)Controls (n = 216)Pb
Smoking statusc
Current87 (81%)152 (70%)0.12
Former15 (14%)40 (19%)
Never6 (5%)24 (11%)
Cigarettes/day    10     6<0.01
Years of cigarette smoking    42    40<0.08
All tobacco smoked (g/day)    17    13<0.01
Years of water pipe smoking    45    44<0.01
Years of all tobacco smoking    45    43<0.05
Pack-year equivalents (all tobacco)    34    25<0.01
Alcohol (g/day)
All men     5     00.18
Drinkers (48%)   180   1710.39
Cumulative radon exposure (WLM)d   570   408<0.05
Cumulative arsenic exposure (IAEM)11,96110,1010.30
Years mining/smelting jobs    31    29<0.05
  • a Based on unmatched data with continuous variables expressed as the median.

  • b P as determined by Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and χ2 for smoking status.

  • c Smoking status shown as number of individuals in each category.

  • d WLM, working level months; IAEM, Index of Arsenic Exposure months.