Table 2

Smoking status and adjusted ORs for lung cancer

Smoking statusUnited StatesJapan
% Cases (n = 371)% Hospital controls (n = 373)OR (95% CI)a% Cases (n = 410)% Hospital controls (n = 252)% Community controls (n = 411)OR (95% CI) (HCa/CCb)
Nonsmokers4.341.014.611.517.01
Ex-smokers55.848.510.5 (6.2–19.0)26.142.944.01.3 (0.6–2.9)/2.2 (1.3–4.0)
Current smokers39.910.540.4 (21.8–79.6)69.345.638.93.5 (1.6–7.5)/6.3 (3.7–10.9)
 Total100100100100100
  • a HC, hospital controls. Reference group is nonsmokers; adjusted for age, education, and hospital.

  • b CC, community controls. Reference group is nonsmokers; adjusted for age and education.