Table 3

HPV infection: association with socio-demographic and selected risk factor variables (n = 2246)a

nbHPV+%ORc (95% CI)
Age (yrs)
 15–2556012722.71.00
 26–3580910713.20.52 (0.39–0.69)
 36–455405810.70.41 (0.29–0.57)
 46–55178147.90.29 (0.16–0.52)
 56–655735.30.19 (0.06–0.62)
 66–79900.0
 P-trendP < 0.001
Race/ethnicity
 Mexican125816313.01.00
 Mexican American74210213.81.00 (0.77–1.32)
 White, non-Hispanic2054722.91.49 (1.01–2.19)
 Other27829.62.08 (0.88–4.91)
Country of birth
 Mexico172222112.81.00
 US4378619.71.18 (0.88–1.59)
 Other26623.11.78 (0.70–4.54)
Marital status
 Married12391078.61.00
 Single3949724.62.30 (1.65–3.21)
 Cohabitating3215115.91.62 (1.12–2.34)
 Divorced/separated/widow2265725.24.49 (3.09–6.53)
Educational level
 <Primary2543513.81.00
 Primary completed5397213.00.83 (0.53–1.31)
 Middle school completed6919513.80.66 (0.42–1.04)
 HS completed3024113.60.69 (0.41–1.15)
 >HS3126219.91.06 (0.65–1.71)
 P-trendP = 0.707
Currently employed
 No129614511.21.00
 Yes88116618.81.76 (1.37–2.25)
Country of clinic
 Mexico125816313.01.00
 US98816116.31.14 (0.89–1.45)
Clinic site
 Nonborder5447413.61.00
 Border170225014.71.18 (0.88–1.58)
Geographic site
 Hermosillo3263811.71.00
 Mexico border93212513.41.19 (0.79–1.79)
 US border77012516.21.34 (0.89–2.03)
 Tucson2183616.51.15 (0.69–1.93)
Age at first intercourse
 ≥20691689.81.00
 18–195257414.11.22 (0.85–1.76)
 16–175328916.71.38 (0.97–1.97)
 6–154168219.71.58 (1.09–2.30)
 P-trendP = 0.014
Lifetime no. of male partners
 112241018.31.00
 2–358011319.52.59 (1.93–3.47)
 4–92035024.63.10 (2.11–4.56)
 ≥101344634.35.19 (3.41–7.91)
 P-trendP < 0.001
No. of new partners in past 3 mos.
 None208127113.01.00
 11052927.62.12 (1.34–3.36)
 2–60411536.62.92 (1.49–5.72)
 P-trendP < 0.001
No. of live births
 03467521.71.00
 1–292413414.50.74 (0.53–1.06)
 3–47439212.40.89 (0.59–1.35)
 5–13233239.90.94 (0.52–1.72)
 P-trendP = 0.989
STD history
 No128017713.81.00
 Yes78312015.31.10 (0.85–1.42)
Smoking history
 Never158020412.91.00
 Past2373012.71.11 (0.72–1.69)
 Current3657921.61.85 (1.38–2.49)
Chlamydia trachomatis
 Negative205227013.21.00
 Positive1805128.32.26 (1.57–3.25)
OC history
 Never6218513.71.00
 Past95113314.01.20 (0.88–1.63)
 Current4597917.21.23 (0.87–1.73)
Norplant history
 Never214630214.11.00
 Ever331030.32.45 (1.15–5.23)
Injectable contraceptive history
 Never172621512.51.00
 Past3305817.61.49 (1.08–2.06)
 Current1384230.42.57 (1.72–3.84)
Current condom use
 No99914514.51.00
 Yes2333715.90.86 (0.57–1.31)
IUDa history
 Never154723315.11.00
 Past4135112.40.90 (0.64–1.25)
 Current2253013.30.74 (0.48–1.12)
  • a CI, confidence interval; STD, sexually transmitted disease; OC, oral contraceptive; IUD, intrauterine device.

  • b n varies because of missing data.

  • c Age-adjusted OR.