Table 3

Incidence RRs and 95% CIs for urothelial cancer for continuous variables of vegetables and fruit consumption, NLCS (1986–1992)

Vegetable/fruits (10th to 90th percentile, grams/day)RRa (95% CI) per 25 gramsRRb (95% CI) per 25 grams
Vegetable and fruits combined (188–569)0.99 (0.96–1.03)N/Ac
Total vegetables (105–297)0.99 (0.96–1.03)N/Ac
Total fruits (41–324)0.99 (0.96–1.01)N/Ac
Individual vegetable items
 String/French beans (6–39)0.97 (0.81–1.15)0.99 (0.80–1.21)
 Broad beans (0–14)1.14 (0.81–1.60)1.20 (0.84–1.70)
 Brussels sprouts (0–16)1.03 (0.69–1.52)1.09 (0.71–1.68)
 Cauliflower (2–28)0.77 (0.61–0.98)0.75 (0.57–0.98)
 Cabbage (white/green) (0–18)0.99 (0.69–1.43)1.04 (0.69–1.58)
 Kale (0–8)1.02 (0.48–2.21)1.10 (0.50–2.44)
 Spinach (0–22)1.01 (0.75–1.37)1.05 (0.77–1.44)
 Endive, cooked (0–26)0.96 (0.75–1.23)0.99 (0.75–1.30)
 Endive, raw (5-1)0.70 (0.39–1.27)0.71 (0.39–1.32)
 Lettuce (0–18)1.05 (0.71–1.55)1.09 (0.72–1.65)
 Leek (0–23)1.00 (0.78–1.28)1.03 (0.79–1.34)
 Onions (0–44)0.94 (0.82–1.07)0.94 (0.80–1.10)
 Carrots, cooked (0–20)0.66 (0.47–0.92)0.63 (0.43–0.92)
 Carrots, raw (0–8)1.16 (0.89–1.50)1.19 (0.92–1.55)
 Sweet peppers (0–8)1.16 (0.62–2.16)1.27 (0.66–2.44)
 Tomatoes (0–47)1.02 (0.91–1.15)1.05 (0.92–1.21)
 Red beets (0–20)0.90 (0.66–1.22)0.92 (0.66–1.27)
 Sauerkraut (0–12)0.87 (0.54–1.42)0.91 (0.54–1.54)
 Mushrooms (0–9)0.68 (0.35–1.31)0.69 (0.35–1.36)
 Gherkins (0–5)0.91 (0.68–1.22)0.92 (0.68–1.25)
 Rhubarb (0–6)0.88 (0.52–1.50)0.89 (0.52–1.51)
Individual fruit items
 Oranges (0–115)1.00 (0.94–1.06)1.02 (0.95–1.10)
 Mandarins (0–15)0.63 (0.42–0.96)0.65 (0.43–1.00)
 Grapefruits (0–36)1.04 (0.94–1.16)1.07 (0.96–1.21)
 Orange/grapefruits juice (0–50)1.00 (0.94–1.08)1.00 (0.93–1.08)
 Apples/pears (0–160)0.97 (0.93–1.01)0.97 (0.91–1.03)
 Bananas (0–46)1.05 (0.95–1.16)1.08 (0.98–1.19)
 Strawberries (0–18)0.83 (0.59–1.16)0.86 (0.61–1.22)
 Grapes (0–14)1.01 (0.71–1.44)1.08 (0.75–1.54)
 Raisins/other dried fruits (0–2)0.37 (0.10–1.43)0.40 (0.11–1.50)
  • a Adjusted for age (years), sex, number of cigarettes per day, years of cigarette smoking, total fruit consumption (grams/day, for vegetable items, or total vegetable consumption (grams/day, for fruits items).

  • b Adjusted for age (years), sex, number of cigarettes per day, years of cigarette smoking, total fruit consumption (grams/day), and total vegetable consumption (grams/day).

  • c Not applicable.