Table 2

Incidence RRs and 95% CI for urothelial cancer according to the consumption of vegetables and fruits, NLCS (1986–1992)

Vegetable/fruit consumption(grams/day in quintiles/categories)Cases in cohortPerson years in subcohortRR (95% CI)aRR (95% CI)b
Vegetables and fruits combined
 1 (<241)14935231.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 2 (≥241–<311)11136060.76 (0.57–1.02)0.81 (0.59–1.11)
 3 (≥311–<379)10135910.72 (0.54–0.97)0.80 (0.58–1.12)
 4 (≥379–<471)9036140.71 (0.53–0.96)0.76 (0.51–1.12)
 5 (≥471)8736380.75 (0.56–1.03)0.98 (0.60–1.61)
P for linear trend0.020.39
Vegetable consumption
 Total vegetables
  1 (<126)11035351.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥126–<163)12236071.07 (0.80–1.44)1.09 (0.80–1.50)
  3 (≥163–<196)10735981.01 (0.74–1.37)1.04 (0.75–1.44)
  4 (≥196–<242)9935750.95 (0.70–1.30)0.99 (0.71–1.38)
  5 (≥242)10036590.90 (0.66–1.23)0.91 (0.65–1.27)
P for linear trend0.290.38
 Cooked vegetables
  1 (<16)10535081.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥16–<28)13036011.22 (0.91–1.64)1.14 (0.84–1.56)
  3 (≥28–<40)9036010.84 (0.61–1.16)0.83 (0.59–1.16)
  4 (≥40–<58)9936030.95 (0.69–1.30)0.86 (0.62–1.20)
  5 (≥58)11436591.01 (0.75–1.37)0.98 (0.71–1.35)
P for linear trend0.420.28
 Raw vegetables
  1 (<99)12235511.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥99–<128)10835860.87 (0.65–1.17)0.94 (0.69–1.29)
  3 (≥128–<155)11735611.12 (0.83–1.50)1.24 (0.91–1.70)
  4 (≥155–<193)9536100.91 (0.67–1.24)1.02 (0.73–1.43)
  5 (≥193)9636650.94 (0.69–1.27)1.10 (0.78–1.53)
P for linear trend0.810.38
 Leafy vegetables, cooked
  1 (<9)11735921.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥9–<16)10635490.85 (0.63–1.15)0.84 (0.61–1.15)
  3 (≥16–<22)10032680.92 (0.67–1.25)0.84 (0.61–1.17)
  4 (≥22–<33)10639360.85 (0.63–1.14)0.84 (0.61–1.16)
  5 (≥33)10936280.90 (0.66–1.21)0.89 (0.65–1.23)
P for linear trend0.450.46
 Leafy vegetables, raw
  1 (<6)19964531.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥6–<12)19959421.17 (0.93–1.47)1.24 (0.97–1.58)
  3 (≥12)14055780.86 (0.67–1.10)0.94 (0.73–1.22)
P for linear trend0.240.75
 Pulses
  1 (<15)8232731.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥15–<24)9636941.05 (0.75–1.46)0.98 (0.69–1.39)
  3 (≥24–<33)11336501.06 (0.77–1.47)0.95 (0.68–1.33)
  4 (≥33–<47)11437691.06 (0.77–1.46)0.94 (0.67–1.33)
  5 (≥47)13335871.24 (0.90–1.70)1.03 (0.74–1.44)
P for linear trend0.140.87
 Brassicas
  1 (<16)10833631.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥16–<24)10634631.00 (0.74–1.36)0.99 (0.71–1.37)
  3 (≥24–<33)11236770.92 (0.68–1.24)0.89 (0.64–1.22)
  4 (≥33–<46)11938220.96 (0.71–1.29)0.95 (0.69–1.30)
  5 (≥46)9336480.75 (0.55–1.03)0.75 (0.54–1.04)
P for linear trend0.050.06
 Allium vegetables
  1 (<12)16050641.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥12–<26)14443991.08 (0.83–1.40)1.08 (0.82–1.42)
  3 (≥26–<43)12042710.99 (0.76–1.30)1.01 (0.76–1.35)
  4 (≥43)11442390.90 (0.69–1.18)0.89 (0.67–1.19)
P for linear trend0.350.35
Fruit consumption
 Total fruits
  1 (<83)18838321.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥83–<131)10137340.64 (0.49–0.85)0.69 (0.51–0.93)
  3 (≥131–<183)10438450.65 (0.49–0.86)0.72 (0.53–0.97)
  4 (≥183–<256)9537580.64 (0.48–0.85)0.70 (0.51–0.96)
  5 (≥256)8138270.66 (0.48–0.89)0.74 (0.53–1.04)
P for linear trend<0.010.02
 Citrus fruits
  1 (<15)19438351.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
  2 (≥15–<41)9638290.55 (0.42–0.73)0.60 (0.45–0.82)
  3 (≥41–<84)10942760.62 (0.47–0.81)0.71 (0.53–0.96)
  4 (≥84–<128)7032570.61 (0.45–0.84)0.69 (0.49–0.98)
  5 (≥128)10037990.75 (0.56–1.00)0.85 (0.62–1.17)
P for linear trend0.010.22
  • a Adjusted for age (years) and sex.

  • b Adjusted for age (years), sex, number of cigarettes per day, years of cigarette smoking, and total vegetable consumption (grams/day, for fruits items) or total fruit consumption (grams/day, for vegetable consumption).