Table 4

NNK uptake by nonsmokers

FluidAnalyteCorrelation with cotinineMean ± S.D. pmol/mlRangea (fold)Reference
AmnioticbNNALNo0.025 ± 0.029 (n = 21)0.009–0.082 (9.1) 24
Urine of newbornsbNNAL + NNAL-GlucYes0.13 ± 0.15 (n = 28)0.044–0.4 (9.1) 23
Urine of women married to smokersNNAL + NNAL-GlucNo0.050 ± 0.068 (n = 23)0.009–0.28 (31) 15
Urine of hospital workersNNAL-GlucYes0.059 ± 0.028 (n = 27)0.005–0.11 (22) 14
Urineof men exposed to ETS in a chamberNNAL + NNAL-GlucYes0.16 ± 0.10c (n = 7)0.084–0.296 (4) 13
Urine of elementary school-aged childrenNNAL + NNAL-GlucYes0.056 ± 0.076 (n = 74)0.004–0.373 (93)This study
  • a Detected values only.

  • b Mothers were smokers.

  • c Approximate, based on excretion of 1 liter of urine/day.