Table 1

NNAL, NNAL-Gluc, and total cotininea in the urine of elementary school-aged childrenb

GroupNo. of families/childrenNo. of children
NNAL or NNAL-Gluc detectedNNAL and NNAL-Gluc not detectedcTotal cotinine ≥5 ng/mlTotal cotinine <5 ng/mlTotal cotinine ≥5 ng/mlTotal cotinine <5 ng/ml
NNAL or NNAL-Gluc detectedNNAL and NNAL-Gluc not detectedNNAL or NNAL-Gluc detectedNNAL and NNAL-Gluc not detected
All66/74621254205221010
Exposure reportedd,e33/3835334433122
No exposure reportedd,e32/35269201519178
  • a Cotinine plus cotinine-N-Gluc.

  • b Samples analyzed for total cotinine, NNAL, and NNAL-Gluc.

  • c Detection limit, 0.003 pmol/ml.

  • d Based on questionnaire data.

  • e Questionnaire data not available on 1 subject.