Table 7

Nested case-control studies of prediagnosis serum or toenail selenium concentrations in lung or prostate cancer

Author (date)SiteCancerSample sizeSerum (toenail) seleniumRRaPb
Lung cancer
 Nomura et al. (34) , 1987HawaiiLung7112.54 μg/dl1.10.46
Control29312.49 μg/dl
 Comstock et al. (8) , 1997United StatesLung25810.8 μg/dlc0.650.08
Control51511.0 μg/dl
 Knekt et al. (7) , 1998FinlandLung955.32 μg/dl0.41.046
Control1905.78 μg/dl
 Ratnasinghe et al. (35) , 2000ChinaLung1084.65 μg/dl1.20.52
Tin minesControl2164.50 μg/dl
 CARET (2001)United StatesLung35611.91 μg/dl1.20.49
Control35611.77 μg/dl
Prostate cancer
 Yoshizawa et al. (3) , 1998United StatesAdvanced prostate181(0.82 ppm)d0.490.11
Control181(0.96 ppm)
 Ghadirian et al. (36) , 2000CanadaProstate83(0.91 ppm)1.140.62
Control82(0.91 ppm)
 Nomura et al. (6) , 2000HawaiiProstate24912.99 μg/dl0.500.02
Control24913.41 μg/dl
 Helzlsouer et al. (5) , 2000United StatesProstate117(0.77 ppm)0.580.27
Control233(0.79 ppm)
 CARET (2001)UAProstate23511.48 μg/dl1.020.69
Control45611.43 μg/dl
  • a RR for highest to lowest quartile or quintile.

  • b P is a test for trend.

  • c Reported as ppm.

  • d Reported as μg/g.