Table 4

Supplemental nutrient intake and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, from United States multicenter, population-based study

Results show adjusteda ORs, 95% CIs, and proportion of subjects who took the supplement at least once a week for 6 months or longer.
ControlsEsophageal adenocarcinomaGastric cardia adenocarcinomaEsophageal squamous cell carcinomaNoncardia gastric cancer
Any multivitamin1.07 (0.76–1.51)0.87 (0.61–1.23)1.19 (0.77–1.83)1.15 (0.84–1.56)
33.9%35.1%30.2%37.4%39.2%
 One-A-Day Type1.24 (0.86–1.79)1.18 (0.82–1.71)1.22 (0.76–1.96)1.13 (0.81–1.59)
25.0%25.5%25.1%28.2%29.0%
 Theragran Type0.81 (0.45–1.48)0.60 (0.31–1.16)1.19 (0.57–2.47)1.28 (0.77–2.11)
8.3%8.5%5.9%8.3%10.5%
 Stress Vitamin Type0.75 (0.25–2.27)0.34 (0.08–1.55)1.30 (0.33–5.13)1.39 (0.56–3.46)
2.5%2.1%0.8%2.4%2.3%
Any single nutrient supplement0.90 (0.63–1.28)0.80 (0.55–1.14)0.66 (0.40–1.08)0.77 (0.55–1.07)
32.6%28.0%25.1%19.9%28.4%
 Vitamin A0.60 (0.24–1.52)0.87 (0.37–2.04)0.64 (0.19–2.16)0.40 (0.15–1.05)
4.5%3.2%3.5%1.9%2.3%
 Vitamin C0.75 (0.51–1.11)0.71 (0.48–1.07)0.71 (0.41–1.22)0.60 (0.41–0.88)
25.6%19.5%18.4%12.6%17.6%
 Vitamin E0.75 (0.47–1.20)0.86 (0.54–1.37)0.66 (0.33–1.32)0.88 (0.58–1.33)
16.6%13.8%13.3%7.3%14.5%
 Iron1.32 (0.45–3.85)0.48 (0.11–2.10)1.15 (0.34–3.90)1.35 (0.54–3.38)
2.0%2.1%1.2%3.9%3.7%
 Calcium/Tums1.79 (1.08–2.98)1.74 (1.04–2.93)0.68 (0.29–1.60)0.87 (0.51–1.49)
9.5%12.8%12.5%6.3%8.8%
  • a Adjusted for sex; site (Connecticut, Washington, New Jersey); age; race (white versus other); proxy status; income; education; usual body mass index; cigarettes/day, years of consuming beer, wine, and liquor (each); and energy intake.