Table 3

Micronutrient intake from foods and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, from United States multicenter, population-based study

Results are adjusteda ORs and 95% CIs, comparing the 75th percentile of intake to the 25th percentile of intake for each nutrient.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma vs. controlGastric cardia adenocarcinoma vs. controlEsophageal squamous cell carcinoma vs. controlNoncardia gastric cancer vs. control
Vitamin A0.47 (0.34–0.66)0.45 (0.32–0.63)0.53 (0.36–0.79)0.60 (0.46–0.79)
 Beta-carotene0.43 (0.32–0.59)0.46 (0.34–0.62)0.43 (0.29–0.63)0.58 (0.46–0.75)
 Retinol1.07 (0.84–1.35)0.99 (0.77–1.28)1.15 (0.88–1.50)1.05 (0.85–1.28)
Vitamin D1.10 (0.86–1.40)1.05 (0.81–1.36)1.00 (0.74–1.36)0.92 (0.72–1.16)
Vitamin E0.73 (0.54–1.00)0.75 (0.55–1.02)0.37 (0.22–0.60)0.71 (0.54–0.94)
Thiamin0.73 (0.50–1.07)1.03 (0.71–1.50)0.78 (0.46–1.30)1.20 (0.85–1.70)
Riboflavin1.11 (0.82–1.52)1.20 (0.86–1.66)1.26 (0.84–1.89)1.19 (0.89–1.59)
Niacin1.07 (0.77–1.48)1.12 (0.82–1.54)0.74 (0.48–1.16)1.13 (0.84–1.52)
Folate0.48 (0.36–0.66)0.73 (0.55–0.97)0.58 (0.39–0.86)0.67 (0.51–0.88)
Vitamin B60.53 (0.38–0.73)0.65 (0.47–0.88)0.45 (0.30–0.69)0.59 (0.45–0.79)
Vitamin B121.39 (1.10–1.76)1.27 (1.01–1.60)1.51 (1.15–2.00)1.38 (1.13–1.68)
Vitamin C0.45 (0.33–0.61)0.64 (0.49–0.84)0.53 (0.36–0.79)0.59 (0.45–0.76)
Iron0.79 (0.57–1.09)1.03 (0.75–1.40)0.75 (0.49–1.16)1.13 (0.85–1.50)
Zinc1.23 (0.92–1.65)1.28 (0.95–1.72)1.40 (0.95–2.06)1.22 (0.92–1.60)
  • a Adjusted for sex; site (Connecticut, Washington, New Jersey); age; race (white versus other); proxy status; income; education; usual body mass index; cigarettes/day; years of consuming beer, wine, and liquor (each); and energy intake.