Table 2

Macronutrient intake and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, from United States multicenter, population-based study

Results are adjusteda ORs and 95% CIs, comparing the 75th percentile of intake to the 25th percentile of intake for each nutrient.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma vs. controlGastric cardia adenocarcinoma vs. controlEsophageal squamous cell carcinoma vs. controlNoncardia gastric cancer vs. control
Energy1.12 (0.91–1.38)1.15 (0.94–1.41)0.77 (0.59–1.01)1.11 (0.92–1.34)
Total fat2.18 (1.27–3.76)0.99 (0.59–1.66)0.98 (0.52–1.86)1.08 (0.67–1.74)
 Saturated fat2.34 (1.55–3.54)1.19 (0.80–1.77)2.16 (1.30–3.58)1.51 (1.04–2.19)
 Polyunsaturated fat0.86 (0.59–1.24)0.86 (0.60–1.22)0.41 (0.25–0.66)0.66 (0.47–0.93)
 % kcal from fat1.57 (1.22–2.02)1.07 (0.84–1.35)1.20 (0.90–1.60)1.13 (0.91–1.40)
Total fiber0.28 (0.19–0.40)0.43 (0.30–0.61)0.24 (0.14–0.38)0.38 (0.28–0.53)
 Insoluble fiber0.28 (0.19–0.41)0.45 (0.32–0.64)0.24 (0.15–0.38)0.40 (0.29–0.55)
 Soluble fiber0.30 (0.21–0.43)0.42 (0.30–0.59)0.27 (0.16–0.43)0.40 (0.29–0.55)
 Fiber per kcal0.39 (0.29–0.52)0.51 (0.39–0.66)0.32 (0.22–0.46)0.51 (0.40–0.64)
Starch1.12 (0.80–1.59)1.61 (1.14–2.28)1.14 (0.73–1.78)2.07 (1.51–2.83)
Carbohydrate0.34 (0.20–0.58)0.70 (0.42–1.17)0.68 (0.37–1.25)0.64 (0.40–1.01)
Total protein1.49 (1.02–2.18)1.64 (1.11–2.42)1.75 (1.07–2.88)1.52 (1.08–2.15)
 Animal protein1.79 (1.33–2.41)1.60 (1.19–2.15)2.14 (1.47–3.12)1.58 (1.22–2.06)
 Vegetable protein0.39 (0.27–0.58)0.75 (0.53–1.07)0.34 (0.21–0.56)0.63 (0.45–0.87)
Cholesterol1.74 (1.36–2.23)1.50 (1.19–1.90)1.63 (1.22–2.18)1.68 (1.35–2.09)
Calcium1.00 (0.77–1.30)1.04 (0.79–1.37)1.26 (0.91–1.75)0.90 (0.70–1.16)
Sodium0.93 (0.61–1.41)1.31 (0.86–2.00)1.06 (0.63–1.80)1.46 (1.00–2.15)
  • a Adjusted for sex; site (Connecticut, Washington, New Jersey); age; race (white versus other); proxy status; income; education; usual body mass index; cigarettes/day; years of consuming beer, wine, and liquor (each); and energy intake. (Energy, percentage of kilocalories from fat, and fiber per kilocalorie not further adjusted for energy.)