Table 1.

Adjusted ORs and 95% CI for alcohol, smoking, physical activity, height, and BMI associated with breast cancer overall

Breast cancer overall
CasesControlsORa (95% CI)
Alcohol intake per week, currenta
 Never drinkers7254,5811 (Ref)
 1 glass9355,3991.07 (0.96–1.19)
 2 glasses8504,8531.07 (0.96–1.20)
 3–4 glasses1,0735,8871.11 (1.00–1.24)
 5–6 glasses4482,3051.16 (1.02–1.33)
 6+ glasses3711,7351.26 (1.09–1.45)
Ptrendb0.001
Beer intake per weekc
 Never drinkers7254,5811 (Ref)
 1 glass9215,1231.11 (0.84–1.47)
 2 glasses3872,1681.08 (0.78–1.50)
 3–4 glasses1788331.09 (0.77–1.53)
 5+ glasses472301.17 (0.80–1.73)
Ptrend0.14
Liquor intake per weekc
 Never drinkers7254,5811 (Ref)
 1 glass9345,2781.15 (0.87–1.51)
 2 glasses2341,4471.33 (0.95–1.87)
 3–4 glasses965051.48 (0.95–2.29)
 5+ glasses341260.84 (0.38–1.86)
Ptrend0.41
Wine intake per weekc
 Never drinkers7254,5811 (Ref)
 1 glass1,3427,5811.00 (0.76–1.32)
 2 glasses7944,5190.97 (0.66–1.44)
 3–4 glasses8204,4830.76 (0.44–1.30)
 5+ glasses4802,3510.95 (0.39–2.35)
Ptrend0.63
Smokingd
 Never1,74810,0001 (Ref)
 Past1,5798,5721.06 (0.98–1.15)
 Current1,0755,7261.13 (1.03–1.23)
Ptrend0.006
Number of cigarettes per day, currentd
 Never smokers1,74810,0001 (Ref)
 1–42621,4071.11 (0.95–1.29)
 5–93732,2001.09 (0.95–1.24)
 10–193901,9341.22 (1.06–1.39)
 20+732851.41 (1.06–1.89)
Ptrend0.001
Pack-years of smokingd
 <2.51,4619,0611 (Ref)
 2.5–4.91517571.24 (1.01–1.52)
 5.0–9.92521,3591.14 (0.97–1.35)
 10.0–14.92581,2941.23 (1.04–1.44)
 15–19.91629430.99 (0.82–1.21)
 ≥203251,5401.26 (1.08–1.46)
Ptrend0.004
Low- and high-intensity physical activity per week, currente
 Never1668171 (Ref)
 1 hour5402,8960.91 (0.75–1.10)
 2–3 hours2,05511,0000.90 (0.75–1.07)
 4–5 hours9745,8960.81 (0.67–0.97)
 6+ hours6613,8620.84 (0.70–1.02)
Ptrend0.01
Height/cmf
 <159 cm3932,6771 (Ref)
 160–164 cm1,1666,9691.11 (0.98–1.25)
 165–169 cm1,4128,1391.13 (1.00–1.28)
 170–174 cm1,0255,2381.23 (1.08–1.41)
 175–1793401,4801.40 (1.19–1.66)
 >180 cm662571.55 (1.15–2.09)
Ptrend<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)
 <201641,1001 (Ref)
 20–211991,2371.06 (0.85–1.33)
 22–236924,1741.10 (0.92–1.32)
 24–259355,5301.13 (0.95–1.35)
 26–278374,5271.24 (1.03–1.48)
 28–295913,1971.22 (1.01–1.48)
 >299844,9951.32 (1.10–1.58)
Ptrend<0.0001
  • aAlcohol additionally adjusted for physical activity (never, 1 hour, 2–3 hours, 4–5 hours, 6+ hours) and smoking (never, past, and current).

  • bPtrend and OR mutual adjusted BMI (≤22, 23–25, 26–28, >28 at screening), education (no education/primary school, high school, bachelor, and master), age at menarche (9–12, 13, 14, 15–18), number of pregnancies (never, 1, 2, 3, ≥4), and menopausal status (pre-, peri-, postmenopausal).

  • cType of alcohol mutual adjusted for each other.

  • dSmoking additionally adjusted for alcohol (never drinkers, 1 glass, 2 glasses, 3–4 glasses, 5+ glasses) and physical activity (never, 1 hour, 2–3 hours, 4–5 hours, 6+ hours).

  • ePhysical activity additionally adjusted for alcohol (never drinkers, 1 glass, 2 glasses, 3–4 glasses, 5+ glasses) and smoking (never, past and current).

  • fHeight additionally adjusted for weight.