Table 1.

Distribution of demographic and clinical characteristics and comorbid conditions by metformin and/or statin use in the study population of elderly PDAC patients

CharacteristicsTotal (N = 12,572)Neither users (N = 4,671)Metformin alone (N = 950)Statin alone (N = 4,506)Dual users (N = 2,445)PAdjusted Pa
Age<0.01<0.01
 65–745,137 (40.86)1,806 (38.66)410 (43.16)c1,714 (38.04)c1,207 (49.37)c
 75–845,228 (41.58)1,872 (40.08)410 (43.16)1,964 (43.59)982 (40.16)
 85+2,207 (17.55)993 (21.26)130 (13.68)828 (18.28)256 (10.47)
Sex<0.010.84
 Male5,268 (41.90)1,850 (39.61)393 (41.37)1,919 (42.59)c1,106 (45.24)c
 Female7,304 (58.10)2,821 (60.39)557 (58.63)2,587 (57.41)1,339 (54.76)
Race<0.010.63
 White9,719 (77.31)3,687 (78.93)712 (74.95)c3,547 (78.72)b1,773 (72.52)c
 Black1,328 (10.56)512 (10.96)99 (10.42)446 (9.90)271 (11.08)
 Others1,525 (12.13)472 (10.10)139 (14.63)513 (11.38)401 (16.40)
Neighborhood median income0.040.99
 <$35,000 OR unknown2,881 (22.92)1,038 (22.22)242 (25.47)b1,003 (22.26)598 (24.46)
 $35,000–$49,9993,416 (27.17)1,281 (27.42)277 (29.16)1,198 (26.59)660 (26.99)
 $50,000–74,9993,324 (26.44)1,253 (26.83)229 (24.11)1,197 (26.56)645 (26.38)
 $75,000+2,951 (23.47)1,099 (23.53)202 (21.26)1,108 (24.59)542 (22.17)
Tumor stage<0.01NC
 Localized/regional5,076 (40.38)1,820 (38.96)392 (41.26)1,834 (40.70)b1,030 (42.13)c
 Distant6,313 (50.21)2,360 (50.52)475 (50.00)2,244 (49.80)1,234 (50.47)
 Unknown1,183 (9.41)491 (10.51)83 (8.74)428 (9.50)181 (7.40)
Tumor grade0.09NC
 I or II1,934 (15.38)678 (14.52)139 (14.63)701 (15.56)416 (17.01)
 III or IV1,531 (12.18)551 (11.80)126 (13.26)548 (12.16)306 (12.52)
 Unknown9,107 (72.44)3,442 (73.69)685 (72.11)3,257 (72.28)1,723 (70.47)
Tumor size<0.01NC
 <5 cm6,953 (55.31)2,500 (53.52)518 (54.53)2,542 (56.41)b1,393 (56.97)c
 ≥5 cm2,299 (18.29)857 (18.35)188 (19.79)796 (17.67)458 (18.73)
 Unknown3,320 (26.41)1,314 (28.13)244 (25.68)1,168 (25.92)594 (24.29)
Resection (Yes)860 (6.84)312 (6.68)74 (7.79)301 (6.68)173 (7.08)0.59NC
Chemotherapy (Yes)1,747 (13.90)637 (13.64)174 (18.32)c602 (13.36)334 (13.66)<0.01NC
Radiation (Yes)1,235 (9.82)457 (9.78)129 (13.58)c416 (9.23)233 (9.53)<0.01NC
Charlson comorbidity score<0.01<0.01
 010,347 (82.30)4,107 (87.93)629 (66.21)c3,807 (84.49)c1,804 (73.78)c
 11,332 (10.59)351 (7.51)218 (22.95)388 (8.61)375 (15.34)
 2512 (4.07)122 (2.61)70 (7.37)162 (3.60)158 (6.46)
 ≥3381 (3.03)91 (1.95)33 (3.47)149 (3.31)108 (4.42)
Obesity (yes)934 (7.43)294 (6.29)102 (10.74)c290 (6.44)248 (10.14)c<0.010.81
Chronic pancreatitis (yes)509 (4.05)180 (3.85)58 (6.11)c179 (3.97)92 (3.76)<0.010.07
COPD (yes)2,156 (17.15)853 (18.26)203 (21.37)b756 (16.78)344 (14.07)c<0.01NC
Dyslipidemia (yes)4,492 (35.73)1,442 (30.87)372 (39.16)c1,781 (39.53)c897 (36.69)c<0.01<0.01
Diabetes/IGT (yes)3,579 (28.47)999 (21.39)471 (49.58)c1,143 (25.37)c966 (39.51)c<0.01<0.01
Diabetic comorbidity severity index (patients with diabetes/IGT)<0.01NC
 0341 (9.53)98 (9.81)62 (13.16)85 (7.44)c96 (9.94)
 1243 (6.79)79 (7.91)33 (7.01)49 (4.29)82 (8.49)
 2488 (13.64)150 (15.02)69 (14.65)131 (11.46)138 (14.29)
 ≥32,507 (70.05)672 (62.27)307 (65.18)878 (76.82)650 (67.29)
  • Abbreviation: NC, not calculated.

  • aReflects differences between groups after adjusting for propensity score for metformin, statin, and dual users.

  • bReflects P < 0.05, compared with neither users.

  • cReflects P < 0.01, compared with neither users.