Table 3.

Association between boiled, espresso, instant, and filter coffee types and risk of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, and rectal cancer in all MECC participants

CRC (unadjusted)CRC (adjusteda)Colon (adjusteda)Rectal (adjusteda)
OR95% LCL95% UCLPOR95% LCL95% UCLPOR95% LCL95% UCLPOR95% LCL95% UCLP
Boiled0.950.861.040.290.820.710.940.0040.790.680.920.0020.880.701.090.23
Espresso0.850.760.950.0050.890.771.030.110.880.761.030.110.900.721.120.35
Instant1.030.951.120.441.070.961.190.211.090.971.210.161.080.911.280.36
Filter1.120.901.380.311.110.861.430.431.190.901.560.220.890.581.370.60

NOTE: Odds ratios represent the relative odds associated with developing CRC for coffee-drinkers of any amount versus non-drinkers.

Abbreviations: CRC, colorectal cancer; LCL, lower confidence limit; UCL, upper confidence limit.

  • aAdjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, vegetable consumption, sports participation, statin use, daily low-dose aspirin use, smoking status, and family history in a first-degree relative.