Table 3.

Association of heterocyclic amine intake and MDM index with total prostate cancer by consumption of tomato products, Health Professionals Follow-up Study 1996–2010

Total prostate cancer
Lower consumption of tomato products (<2 portions/wk; 1,607 cases)Higher consumption of tomato products (≥2 portions/wk; 1,163 cases)
HRa (95% CI)HRa (95% CI)pib
MeIQx (ng/d)
 <3.61.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 3.7–<8.01.08 (0.92–1.26)0.98 (0.80–1.19)
 8.1–<14.11.19 (1.02–1.40)1.01 (0.83–1.23)
 14.1–<25.01.14 (0.97–1.34)0.98 (0.80–1.20)
 ≥25.01.15 (0.97–1.37)1.07 (0.87–1.31)
  Ptrend0.080.550.27
PhIP (ng/d)
 <25.61.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 25.6–<51.41.04 (0.89–1.21)1.15 (0.94–1.41)
 51.4–<89.41.07 (0.92–1.26)0.95 (0.77–1.17)
 89.4–<152.91.09 (0.93–1.28)1.01 (0.82–1.23)
 ≥152.91.14 (0.96–1.34)1.02 (0.84–1.25)
  Ptrend0.100.630.12
PhIP from red meat (ng/d)
 <0.71.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 0.7–<9.51.08 (0.92–1.27)1.00 (0.81–1.23)
 9.5–<18.41.15 (0.97–1.35)1.06 (0.86–1.30)
 18.4–<45.01.10 (0.93–1.30)0.95 (0.78–1.17)
 ≥45.01.27 (1.06–1.52)1.05 (0.85–1.31)
  Ptrend0.020.870.12
PhIP from white meat (ng/d)
 <14.41.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 14.4–<29.91.09 (0.93–1.27)1.08 (0.88–1.32)
 29.9–<56.31.11 (0.95–1.30)1.09 (0.89–1.33)
 56.3–<110.41.10 (0.93–1.28)0.95 (0.77–1.16)
 ≥110.41.15 (0.98–1.36)0.99 (0.81–1.21)
  Ptrend0.120.420.29
DiMeIQx (ng/d)
 <0.101.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 0.10–<0.201.11 (0.93–1.33)1.21 (0.97–1.51)
 0.20–<0.871.12 (0.97–1.30)1.09 (0.92–1.30)
 0.87–<1.901.04 (0.90–1.20)0.91 (0.76–1.09)
 ≥1.901.15 (1.00–1.34)0.98 (0.83–1.16)
  Ptrend0.110.330.27
MDM index (revertant colonies/d)
 <1,2221.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 1,222–<2,2561.12 (0.96–1.30)1.04 (0.85–1.27)
 2,256–<3,5510.98 (0.83–1.15)1.09 (0.89–1.33)
 3,551–<5,6631.13 (0.96–1.33)1.10 (0.90–1.33)
 ≥5,6631.25 (1.06–1.47)1.01 (0.83–1.24)
  Ptrend0.020.810.01
  • aAdjusted for age, race/ethnicity, pack-years smoked in the past ten years, family history of prostate cancer, updated history of diabetes mellitus, height, BMI at age 21, updated vigorous leisure-time physical activity, updated current aspirin use, cumulative average updated intake of fish, and updated intake of energy, alcohol, vitamin E, α-linolenic acid, and total calcium.

  • bpi = Pinteraction.