Table 1.

Average air measurements of respirable PM2.5, CO, nicotine, and ventilation rates over the exposure period

Air measurementnMean ± SD
PM2.5 (μg/m3)
 Inside of the car131,172 ± 503
 Outside of the car1317.7 ± 12.8
Carbon monoxide (ppm)
 Dashboard123.3 ± 1.7
 Middle122.5 ± 1.2
 Back122.5 ± 0.9
Nicotine (μg/m3)
 Inside of the car1365.6 ± 107.9
 Outside of the car100.06 ± 0.08
Air changes per hour
 Dashboard116.0 ± 1.8
 Middle125.0 ± 1.7
 Back103.4 ± 0.9

NOTE: Measurements of air exposure for this study have been previously published and referred to as “Set 2” (23).