Table 3.

The number and percentage of CEC articles on the continuum of translational research with types of research and examples from the literature analysis

PhaseNumber (%)NotationTypes of researchExamples from literature review
T02,645 (79%)Discovery researchGWAS; candidate gene studies; environmental and lifestyle risk factor studies; biologic studies of disease etiologyAlcohol intake and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis from the BEACON Consortium (25)
Association of a microRNA/TP53 feedback circuitry with pathogenesis and outcome of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (26)
T1582 (17%)Discovery to candidate health applicationPhases I and II clinical trials; observational studies to characterize genes and gene–environment interaction; pharmacogenomicsThe PREMM(1,2,6) model predicts risk of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 germline mutations based on cancer history (28)
Modification of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer risk by AIB1 genotype and reproductive history (27)
T2112 (3.3%)Health application to evidence-based practice guidelinesPhase III clinical trials; observational studies assessing the efficacy and use of interventions; evidence synthesis and guidelines developmentAssociation of risk-reducing surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with cancer risk and mortality (29)
Counseling and DNA testing for individuals perceived to be genetically predisposed to melanoma: A consensus statement of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (30)
T318 (0.5%)Practice guidelines to health practicePhase IV clinical trials; dissemination research; implementation research; diffusion researchLynch syndrome: barriers to and facilitators of screening and disease management (32)
Concordance with clinical practice guidelines for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage I–III colon cancer: experience in 2 Canadian provinces (31)
T46 (0.2%)Practice to population health impactOutcomes research; population monitoring of morbidity, mortality, benefits and risks; cost effectivenessCost effectiveness of microsatellite instability screening as a method for detecting hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (33)
Long-term efficacy of sigmoidoscopy in the reduction of colorectal cancer incidence (34)