Table 2.

Median (IQR) for the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic concentrations by participant characteristics

All participants, arsenic (μg/g creatinine)Participants without diabetes and albuminuria, arsenic (μg/L)a
nMedian (IQR)P valuebnMedian (IQR)P valueb
Overall3,9359.7 (5.8–15.6)1,76511.1 (6.9–17.7)
Age in years<551,9479.7 (5.9–15.7)95911.1 (7.1–17.9)
55–641,2929.6 (5.7–15.4)54811.3 (6.7–17.6)
>656969.7 (5.6–15.8)0.2825810.9 (6.4–18.0)0.53
SexMale1,6038.8 (5.1–14.3)78411.3 (6.8–17.6)
Female2,33210.4 (6.2–16.6)<0.00198111.0 (6.9–17.9)0.57
RegionArizona1,31414.3 (9.9–20.8)32915.6 (10.3–23.6)
Oklahoma1,3185.6 (3.8–8.2)7027.5 (5.1–11.7)
Dakota1,30310.6 (6.9–15.8)<0.00173413.0 (8.7–20.9)<0.001
EducationNo high school86813.1 (8.9–20.3)30215.5 (10.3–22.5)
Some high school99210.1 (5.9–16.6)39811.2 (6.8–18.6)
Completed high school2,0758.0 (5.0–13.2)<0.0011,06510.0 (6.3–16.1)<0.001
Smoking statusNever1,28410.1 (6.0–16.5)51110.5 (6.6–17.5)
Former1,3389.2 (5.6–15.0)55310.4 (6.5–16.1)
Current1,3139.7 (5.8–15.4)0.0179112.4 (7.5–19.8)0.008
Alcohol statusNever6369.2 (5.5–15.5)2419.7 (6.2–16.0)
Former1,6508.7 (5.3–14.4)69910.0 (6.5–15.4)
Current1,64910.8 (6.4–17.1)<0.00182512.5 (7.9–21.2)<0.001
BMI<25 kg/m261010.7 (5.8–17.6)36412.3 (7.2–21.0)
25–301,3249.6 (5.6–15.7)68310.8 (6.7–17.4)
>302,0019.5 (5.9–15.0)0.0271810.9 (6.9–16.8)0.002
DiabetesNo1,9868.4 (5.1–13.6)1,76511.1 (6.9–17.7)
Yes1,93911.0 (6.6–18.0)<0.001-
Glomerular filtration rate≤60 mL/min/1.73 m23958.9 (5.3–14.6)10511.1 (6.9–17.9)
>603,4689.8 (5.8–15.7)0.031,62811.5 (6.9–18.3)0.67
  • aAdjusted to mean specific gravity in the study population of 1.019 using the following formula: arsenic (μg/L)*[1.019 (g/mL) −1]/[SG (g/mL) − 1].

  • bP value from Kruskall–Wallis exact test.