Table 3.

HRs (95% CI) for cancer mortality by urinary arsenic concentrations

Sum inorganic and methylated arsenic tertiles80th vs. 20th
<6.91 μg/g6.91–13.32 μg/g>13.32 μg/gPercentilescP-trendd
Overall cancer (ICD-9 140 to 208)
Cases/non-cases121/1,198135/1,181130/1,170386/3,549
 Model 11 (Referent)1.17 (0.90–1.52)1.27 (0.96–1.70)1.16 (0.94–1.42)0.16
 Model 21 (Referent)1.17 (0.90–1.53)1.23 (0.92–1.65)1.14 (0.92–1.41)0.24
Trachea, bronchus, and lung (ICD-9 162)
Cases/non-cases27/1,29220/1,29631/1,26978/3,857
 Model 11 (Referent)0.89 (0.49–1.62)1.95 (1.09–3.49)1.59 (1.05–2.42)0.03
 Model 21 (Referent)0.94 (0.51–1.72)1.82 (1.00–3.32)1.56 (1.02–2.39)0.04
Liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts (ICD-9 155–156)
Cases/non-cases8/1,31113/1,30313/1,28734/3,901
 Model 11 (Referent)1.51 (0.59–3.88)1.56 (0.56–4.32)1.50 (0.76–2.97)0.24
 Model 21 (Referent)1.38 (0.53–3.62)1.36 (0.47–3.95)1.34 (0.66–2.72)0.41
Prostate (ICD-9 185)
Cases/non-cases6/6055/5267/45418/1,585
 Model 11 (Referent)1.25 (0.37–4.26)2.90 (0.85–9.92)1.91 (0.82–4.41)0.13
 Model 21 (Referent)1.55 (0.45–5.33)4.58 (1.31–16.6)3.30 (1.28–8.48)0.01
Kidney (ICD-9 189.0)b
Cases/non-cases9/1,3109/1,3078/1,29226/3,909
 Model 11 (Referent)0.68 (0.25–1.86)0.50 (0.15–1.42)0.69 (0.25–1.90)0.28
 Model 21 (Referent)0.69 (0.25–1.90)0.44 (0.14–1.40)0.44 (0.14–1.40)0.36
Esophagus and stomach cancer (ICD-9 150–151)
Cases/non-cases8/1,3118/1,3088/1,29224/3,911
 Model 11 (Referent)1.19 (0.42–3.39)1.33 (0.41–4.29)0.94 (0.40–2.24)0.89
 Model 21 (Referent)1.33 (0.46–3.84)1.57 (0.47–5.26)1.09 (0.45–2.66)0.85
Pancreas (ICD-9 157)
Cases/non-cases7/1,3127/1,30911/1,28925/3,910
 Model 11 (Referent)1.04 (0.34–3.19)2.14 (0.67–6.82)2.26 (1.04–4.88)0.04
 Model 21 (Referent)1.04 (0.33–3.29)2.14 (0.67–6.82)2.46 (1.09–5.58)0.03
Colon and rectal cancer (ICD-9 153–154)
Cases/non-cases12/1,30714/1,3026/1,29432/3,903
 Model 11 (Referent)1.46 (0.65–3.29)0.87 (0.30–2.57)0.83 (0.40–2.24)0.62
 Model 21 (Referent)1.41 (0.62–3.21)0.82 (0.27–2.48)0.78 (0.36–1.67)0.52
Breast (ICD-9 174)a
Cases/non-cases7/70113/7726/83326/2,306
 Model 11 (Referent)1.79 (0.67–4.74)0.90 (0.27–3.07)0.84 (0.37–1.93)0.99
 Model 21 (Referent)1.92 (0.71–5.15)0.96 (0.28–3.22)1.00 (0.44–2.28)0.69
Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (ICD-9 200–208)
Cases/non-cases11/1,30820/1,2969/1,29140/3,895
 Model 11 (Referent)1.63 (0.74–3.61)0.69 (0.26–1.87)0.59 (0.29–1.17)0.13
 Model 21 (Referent)1.44 (0.64–3.25)0.57 (0.21–1.58)0.46 (0.22–0.96)0.04

NOTE: Model 1: Unadjusted, stratified by center.

Model 2: Adjusted for sex, age, education (no high school/some high school/completed high school), smoking status (never, former, current), drinking status (never, former, current), and BMI (kg/m2).

  • aModel 2 for breast cancer was further adjusted for menopausal status and parity.

  • bModel 2 for kidney cancer was further adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60, ≥60 mL/min/1.72m2) and hypertension status (yes/no).

  • cModels comparing the 80th vs. 20th percentiles of urine arsenic distributions and associated P trend were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models with log-transformed arsenic as a continuous variable.

  • dP trend calculated modeling log-arsenic as continuous.